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Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds Five focus groups with car-sharing members in San Francisco, Boston and Washington, DC, and an additional focus group with inactive or former car-sharing members (see Chapters 3 and 4) A web-based survey and 72 telephone and face-to-face interviews with partner organizations involved in car-sharing, documented in Chapter 5 A workshop with car-sharing operators, focusing on barriers to implementation and growth, and mechanisms for setting up part- nerships (Chapters 6 and 7) An analysis of neighborhood characteristics around car-sharing locations, referred to as "pods" in this chapter (Chapter 3) Survey instruments and the agenda for the car-sharing operators workshop are provided in Appendix C. 1.3Report Structure The report consists of the following chapters: Chapter 2, State of the Practice, provides a brief history of car- sharing, documents its current geographic scope, and discusses different organizational and operational models. It also analyzes the relationship of car-sharing to other modes; discusses cur- rent practices such as pricing, vehicle selection and technol- ogy; and addresses issues of definitions and terminology. Chapter 3, Market Analysis, discusses both the characteristics of car-sharing members, and the demographic and physical characteristics of neighborhoods where car-sharing has been established. It finds that car-sharing primarily appeals to higher- educated (but not necessarily higher-income) households, who are concerned about environmental and social issues. The geo- graphic markets for car-sharing, in contrast, are most notable for their neighborhood and transportation characteristics, rather than overall education levels and other demographic variables. There is a particularly strong relationship with vehicle own- ership, suggesting that the availability of alternatives to the private car is key for the success of a car-sharing location. Chapter 4, Impacts of Car-Sharing, confirms previous stud- ies that car-sharing has a substantial impact in reducing members' vehicle ownership and travel, and reducing house- hold transportation costs. Equally significant is an increase in mobility, particularly for people who did not own a car be- fore and can now access a wider variety of destinations. Chapter 5, The Role of Partners, discusses some of the ways in which partner organizations have tried to promote car-shar- ing. It focuses on the experience of five types of car-sharing Page 1-3

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Chapter 1 Introduction partners local governments; transit agencies; employers and businesses; developers; and universities. These organizations have offered a wide variety of support, ranging from finan- cial support and provision of parking to supportive planning policies and joining the car share as an organizational mem- ber. Partner organizations hope to achieve multiple objec- tives from car-sharing, particularly reducing parking demand, providing mobility options, and improving air quality. Chapter 6, Factors for Success, identifies some of the most important barriers to car-sharing and discusses how they can be overcome with the help of partner organizations. Specific barriers include a lack of understanding of the car-sharing concept; financial issues; regulatory constraints; and serv- ing specific markets such as low-income households. Chapter 7, Procurement and Monitoring, focuses on the me- chanics of car-sharing partnerships. It covers procurement mechanisms and evaluation techniques, and details perfor- mance measures that can be used to track the effectiveness of car-sharing in achieving operator and agency goals. Chapter 8, Conclusion, discusses some of the broader barri- ers to car-sharing that might be fruitfully tackled at a national level. It also analyzes different models for how car-sharing services can be established and provides guidance on how partners can bring car-sharing to their own communities. Appendices include an annotated bibliography; a list of partner organizations surveyed and interviewed; survey instruments; and sample documents such as RFPs and zoning ordinances related to car-sharing. Appendix E, Partner Profiles, summarizes the key findings of the report from the perspective of different types of partner organizations to quickly understand the relevance of car-sharing and the research findings to their specific needs. Page September 2005 1-4