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Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds 4.6 Conclusions Car-sharing members report that car-sharing has significant impacts for them. A more difficult question is how large these impacts are for the entire community. Probably the most profound effect on car-sharing members is the potential for reducing the numbers of vehicles that they own. The biggest reported impact was the ability to postpone buying another car, followed by the abil- ity to sell the household's second car. Being able to sell the only household car was a distant third in this set of benefits. Car-sharing should indeed reduce the numbers of vehicles owned by car-sharing members. This in turn should have ripple effects on the amount of traffic, air pollution, and parking requirements within neighborhoods where car-sharing is active and attractive. (But one focus group member said "I'm happy that car-sharing is getting bigger and bigger, but I don't see cars coming out of my neighbor- hood and going away, and I wish I did.") Overall, car-sharing members make fewer trips by auto after becoming ac- tive in car-sharing, and their total mileage driven decreases substantially. These changes have positive environmental impacts, are associated with increased transit use, and lead (to some extent) to an increased reliance on walking, which in turn should have long-term health benefits. Persons involved in car-sharing often realize savings in overall transportation expenses. This is attributable to lower monthly capital costs, lower insurance expenses, lower gasoline and maintenance expenses, and lowered parking expenses. But many car-sharing members report that not having "the hassles of car ownership" is an even greater benefit to them than saving money. A wider range of more distant destinations becomes available to many car-sharing members. In particular, car-sharing members report being able to travel to larger "big box" stores as one of the key benefits that they realize. Lane (2005) suggests that car-sharing leads to shifts in environmental values, awareness of costs, and trip-making decisions. The evidence that we have seen suggests an opposite direction of causality: persons with high regards for environmental values are likely to be attracted to car-sharing, as are persons who have a strong focus on travel costs. Car-sharing does change the calculus of trip-making decisions: car-sharing members are much more likely to weigh alternative travel times and modes than other travelers. One Page 4-35