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Chapter 4 Impacts of Car-Sharing focus group member reported that "You really think about using the car. It becomes a really thoughtful process." Another respondent reported that "After being a pedestrian here for so long and then having car-sharing, it's made me think more of the car as a tool." A possibly negative feature of current car-sharing operations is that members are highly sensitive to the consequences associated with exceeding reservation times, and do feel under significant pressure to return the vehicles within the specified time frame. Does car-sharing membership affect long-term residential location decisions? Nearly three-quarters (72%) of PhillyCarShare members say that car-shar- ing locations are important to where they choose to live (Lane, 2005). In Quebec, the figure is 50% (Communauto, 2004). These findings were not specifically substantiated by the data collected for this project, but one focus group member reported that "If I ever move out of Boston, I want to find a place that has a car-sharing program because I don't want to buy a car. I've never owned a car and I don't want to." References American Automobile Association (2003). Your Driving Costs. Available at www.ouraaa.com/news/library/drivingcost/driving.html. Baum, H. and Pesch, S. (1994). Untersuchung der Eignung von Carsharing im Hinblick auf die Reduzierung von Stadtverkehrsproblemen. Bonn: Bundesminis- terium fr Verkehr. Cited in Shaheen, Sperling & Wagner (1998). Cairns, Sally; Sloman, Lynn; Newson, Carey; Anable, Jillian; Kirkbride, Alistair; and Goodwin, Phil (2004). "Chapter 8. Car Clubs," in Smarter Choices Changing the Way We Travel. London: Department for Transport. Cambridge Systematics (1986). Evaluation of the Short-Term Auto Rental (STAR) Service in San Francisco, CA. Report submitted to Urban Mass Transportation Administration, US Department of Transportation. Cervero, Robert; Creedman, Nina; Pohan, Muhammad; and Pai, Madhav (2002), City CarShare: Assessment of Short-Term Travel-Behavior Impacts. Univer- sity of California at Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development. Working Paper 2002-01. Cervero, Robert and Tsai, Yu-Hsin (2003). San Francisco City CarShare: Travel Demand Trends and Second-Year Impacts. University of California at Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development. Working Paper 2003-05. Page September 2005 4-36

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Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds Chesapeake Bay Foundation (2001). Building Healthier Neighborhoods with Metrorail: Rethinking Parking Policies. Annapolis, MD: Chesapeake Bay Foundation. City CarShare (2002). City CarShare Vehicle Ownership Survey. Communauto (2004). Rsultats du Sondage 2004. Accessed June 21, 2005 at: www.communauto.com/sondage04_resultats0.html. Cooper, Gigi; Howes, Deborah; and Mye, Peter (2000). The Missing Link. An Evaluation of CarSharing Portland Inc. Planning Workshop report prepared for Public Policy Research; Oregon Department of Environmental Quality; and CarSharing Portland Inc. Cousins, Steven (2001). "Car Clubs Ride Again," Town and Country Planning, 70(5): 142-145. Flexcar (2001). Key Statistics Regarding Car Sharing and its Benefits. Flexcar (2002). Unpublished survey for Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authority. Harms, Sylvia and Truffer, Bernard (1998). The Emergence of a Nationwide Carsharing Co-operative in Switzerland. Prepared for EAWAG Eidg. Anstalt fr Wasserversorgung. Abwasserreinigung und Gewasserschutz. Switzer- land. Hauke, U. (1993). Carsharing-Eine Empirische Zielgruppenanalyse unter Einbezie- hung. Socialpsychologischer Aspekte zur Ableitung einer Marketing-Konzeption. Hauke, Feldstrasse. Cited in Shaheen, Sperling & Wagner (1998). Holm, Birger and Eberstein, Frank Mller (2002). "Car-Sharing and PT. The Dresden Model." Public Transport International, June 2002, pp 18-22. Holtzclaw, John (2002). How Compact Neighborhoods Affect Modal Choice Two Examples. Available at: www.sierraclub.org/sprawl/articles/modal.asp Holtzclaw, John; Clear, Robert; Dittmar, Hank; Goldstein, David; and Haas, Peter (2002). "Location Efficiency: Neighborhood and Socio-Economic Characteristics Determine Auto Ownership and Use Studies in Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco," Transportation Planning and Technology, 25 (1): 1-27. Hope, Steven (2001). Monitoring and Evaluation of the Edinburgh City Car Club. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Accessed March 29, 2004 at www. scotland.gov.uk/cru/ kd01/ blue/carclub-04.asp. Page 4-37

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Chapter 4 Impacts of Car-Sharing Huwer, Ulrike (2004). "Public Transport and Car-Sharing--Benefits and Effects of Combined Services," Transport Policy, 11(1): 77-87. Jensen, Nicole (2001), The Co-operative Auto Network Social and Environmental Report 2000-01. Vancouver: Co-operative Auto Network. Katzev, Richard (1999). CarSharing Portland: Review and Analysis of Its First Year. Report prepared for Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Katzev, Richard (2002). "Car Sharing: A New Approach to Urban Transpor- tation Problems." Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy. Accessed March 29, 2004 at www.publicpolicyresearch.net/papers.html#one Katzev, Richard; Brook, David; and Nice, Matthew (2000). "The Effects of Car Sharing on Travel Behavior: Analysis of CarSharing Portland's First Year," World Transport Policy & Practice, 7(1): 22-26. Koch, Henning (2002). MOSES User Needs Report. Accessed March 29, 2004 at http://213.170.188.3/moses/m_papers/USER_NEEDS_REPORT_new.pdf Krietemeyer, Hartmut (1997). "Auswirkungen von Car-Sharing auf die Nachfrage nach PNV-Leistungen," Der Nahverkehr, September 1997, pp. 14-20. Cited in Krietemeyer (2003). Krietemeyer, Hartmut (2003). "Effekte der Kooperation von Verbund und Car-Sharing Organisation," Der Nahverkehr, September 2003, pp. 31-39. Kuzmyak, J. Richard; Weinberger, Rachel; Pratt, Richard H; and Levinson, Herbert S. (2003). TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 18 Parking Management and Supply. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Lane, Clayton (2005). PhillyCarShare: First-Year Social and Mobility Impacts of Car Sharing in Philadelphia. Paper presented at Transportation Research Board 84th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 9-13, 2005. Ledbury, Matthew (2004). UK Car Clubs: An Effective Way of Cutting Vehicle Usage and Emissions? M.Sc. thesis, Environmental Change Institute, Univer- sity of Oxford. Lightfoot, G. (1997). Pay as You Drive Carsharing: Final Report. Unpublished report cited in Katzev, Brook & Nice (2000). Meijkamp R. and Theunissen, R. (1997). Evaluatieprogramma De Deelauto in Nederland. Final Report on behalf of the Ministerie van Verkeer en Wa- Page September 2005 4-38

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Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds terstaat, Adviesdienst Verkeer en Vervoer, Rotterdam. Cited in Harms & Truffer (1998). Millard-Ball, Adam (2002). "Putting on Their Parking Caps," Planning, April 2002, pp 16-21. Muheim, Peter & Partner (1998). CarSharing the Key to Combined Mobility. Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Energie 2000. Accessed March 29, 2004 at reservation.mobility.ch/mobilmanager/IntSummeryE.html Olsen, Malene and Rettig, Morten (2000). Evaluering af carsharing i Danmark. Copenhagen: Miljstyrelsen. Accessed July 27, 2004 at http://www.mst. dk/udgiv/Publikationer/2000/87-7944-312-5/html/ Perner, Torsten; Schne, Patrick; and Brosig, Hagen (2000). Car-Sharing und PNV--Das Dresdner Modell, Ergebnisse einer Umfrage. Schriftenreihe der TU Dresden. Cited in Huwer (2004). Price, Jeff and Hamilton, Chris (2005). Arlington Pilot Carshare Program. First- Year Report. Arlington: Arlington County. RIDES for Bay Area Commuters (2003). Commute Profile 2003. A Survey of San Francisco Bay Area Commute Patterns. Oakland: RIDES for Bay Area Commuters. Robert, Benot (2000). Potentiel de l'auto-partage dans le cadre d'une politique de gestion de la demande en transport. Paper presented at Forum de l'AQTR, gaz effet de serre: transport et dveloppement, Kyoto: une opportunit d'affaires?, Montral, February 7 2000. Rydn, Christian and Morin, Emma (2005). MOSES Environmental Assessment Report. Accessed February 1, 2005 at: 213.170.188.3/moses/Downloads/re- ports/del_6.pdf. San Francisco Planning Department (2002). Getting it Right. Rethinking San Francisco's Parking Requirements. Planning policy discussion paper. Available at www.ci.sf.ca.us/planning/neighborhoodplans/parking/parking.htm. Shaheen, Susan, Sperling, D. and Wagner, Conrad (1998), "Carsharing in Europe and North America: Past, Present and Future," Transportation Quar- terly, 52(3):35-52. Page 4-39

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Chapter 4 Impacts of Car-Sharing Shaheen, Susan; Wright, John; and Sperling, Daniel (2002). "California's Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate: Linking Clean-Fuel Cars, Carsharing and Station Car Strategies," Transportation Research Record 1791, pp 113-120. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Shaheen, Susan; Schwartz, Andrew; and Wipyewski, Kamill (2004). "Policy Considerations for Carsharing and Station Cars: Monitoring Growth, Trends and Overall Impacts." Transportation Research Record 1887, pp 128-136. Wash- ington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Shoup, Donald (2005). The High Cost of Free Parking. Chicago: American Planning Association. Steininger, Karl; Vogl, Caroline; and Zettl, Ralph (1996). Car-sharing Orga- nizations: The size of the market segment and revealed change in mobility behavior. Transport Policy 3(4): 177-185. Vance, Robert; Williams, John; and Rutherford, G. Scott (2004). Flexcar Seattle Member Attitude and Usage Survey. Paper presented at Transportation Re- search Board 83rd Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 11-15, 2004. Wagner, Conrad (1990). ATG Umfrage 1990. ATG. Stans. German. Cited in Shaheen, Sperling & Wagner (1998). Zipcar (2001). Factsheet on Zipcar service. Zipcar (2005). Zipcar Customer Survey Shows Car-Sharing Leads to Car Shed- ding. News release dated February 16, 2005. Page September 2005 4-40