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Chapter 2 State of the Practice Schwieger suggests that these "second generation" services, along with others such as floating cars (which are not assigned to any particular lo- cation and can be picked up and dropped off anywhere within a defined geographic zone), are important to maintain membership growth. Rather than providing a simple add-on to existing operations, he concludes that they provide an opportunity to relaunch the entire concept. According to Schwieger & Wagner (2003), open-ended car-sharing makes car-sharing as convenient as car ownership; the ability to make one-way trips gives car- sharing even greater flexibility. Indeed, open-ended reservations are particularly promising once vehicle locations grow large enough to be able to support open-ended as well as fixed-reservation vehicles. This would address one of the key downsides of car-sharing the lack of flexibility should travel plans change. However, the likely increased costs and additional complexities particularly for one-way trips mean that some operators may continue to focus on the basic business model, and leave taxis to serve the one-way trip market. One car-sharing founder suggests that "it is important to avoid getting caught up in the technology craze." Car-sharing, he recommends, should focus initially on markets that can be served cost-effectively, and avoid the cost and distraction of advanced features that, while perhaps desirable, are not necessary to serve the core market. (Robert, 2000) References Barth, Matthew and Todd, Michael (2001), "User Behavior Evaluation of an Intelligent Shared Electric Vehicle System," Transportation Research Record 1760, pp 145-152. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Barth, Matthew; Todd, Michael; and Xue, Lei (2004). "User-Based Vehicle Relocation Techniques for Multiple-Station Shared-Use Vehicle Systems." Paper presented at Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 11-15, 2004. Bergmaier, R., Mason, C., McKenzie, M., Campbell, S., and Hobson, A., (2004). Car Sharing: An Overview. Australian Government, Canberra. Bernard, Martin (2003), A Ten-Year Retrospective on the National Station Car Association. Oakland, CA: National Station Car Association. Britton, Eric (1999a). "Carsharing? A roadmap & compass for this long trip," World Transport Policy & Practice, 5(3): 1-8. Page September 2005 2-32

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Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds Britton, Eric (1999b). "A Short History of Early Car Sharing Innovations," World Transport Policy & Practice, 5(3): 9-15. Brook, David (2004). Carsharing Start Up Issues and New Operational Models. Paper presented at Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 11-15, 2004. Cambridge Systematics (1986), Evaluation of the Short-Term Auto Rental (STAR) Service in San Francisco, CA. Report submitted to Urban Mass Transportation Administration, US Department of Transportation. Cervero, Robert and Tsai, Yu-Hsin (2003), San Francisco City CarShare: Travel Demand Trends and Second-Year Impacts. University of California at Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development. Working Paper 2003-05. City CarShare (2005). Bringing Car-Sharing to Your Community. San Francisco: City CarShare. City of Toronto (2000). Planning and Transportation Committee, Staff Report, August 17, 2000. Cousins, Steven (1999). "Theory, Benchmarking, Barriers to Carsharing: An Alternative Vision & History," World Transport Policy & Practice, 5(3): 44-52. DeMaio, Paul and Gifford, Jonathan (2004). "Will Smart Bikes Succeed as Public Transportation in the United States?" Journal of Public Transportation 7(2): 1-15. Doherty, M.J., Sparrow, F.T. and Sinha, K.C. (1987). "Public Use of Autos: Mobility Enterprise Project," Journal of Transportation Engineering 113(1): 84-94. Harms, Sylvia and Truffer, Bernard (1998). The Emergence of a Nationwide Carsharing Co-operative in Switzerland. Prepared for EAWAG Eidg. Anstalt fr Wasserversorgung. Abwasserreinigung und Gewasserschutz. Switzer- land. Katzev, Richard (2003). "Car Sharing: A New Approach to Urban Trans- portation Problems," Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy 3(1). www. Mastretta, Marco (2005). ICS: the Italian Car Sharing National Circuit. Pre- sentation at Keys to Car-Sharing: Moving the City of Tomorrow, Brussels, 27-28 January 2005. Page 2-33

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Chapter 2 State of the Practice Meaton, J; Starkey, R; Williams, S (2003). "Stelios: the Accidental Environ- mentalist? The Potential Impacts of the EasyCar Club in the UK," World Transport Policy & Practice 9(1): 31-36. MOSES (2004). Design and Building of Demonstrators. Deliverable 3.2: Tech- nological Demonstrators and Service Modules. Nakayama, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; and Kitamura, Ryuichi (2002), "Simulation Analysis for the Management of an Electric Vehicle-Sharing System", Transportation Research Record 1791, pp 99-104. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Reutter, Oscar and Bhler, Susanne (2000). "Car Sharing for Business: The Aachen Region Pilot Project." World Transport Policy & Practice, 6(3): 11-17. Robert, Benot (2000). Potentiel de l'auto-partage dans le cadre d'une politique de gestion de la demande en transport. Paper presented at Forum de l'AQTR, gaz effet de serre: transport et dveloppement, Kyoto: une opportunit d'affaires?, Montral, February 7, 2000. Rydn, Christian and Morin, Emma (2004). Legal, Political and Fiscal Incentives and Barriers for Car-Sharing. Horizontal Issues Report WP 6. Accessed February 1, 2005 at Schwartz, Joachim (2005). Quality in CarSharing. Presentation at Keys to Car- Sharing: Moving the City of Tomorrow, Brussels, 27-28 January 2005. Schwieger, Bodo (2004). International Developments towards Improved Car- Sharing Services. Oxford: Writersworld. Schwieger, Bodo and Wagner, Conrad (2003). Second Generation Car-Shar- ing. Presentation at the 10th World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems and Services, Madrid, 16-20 November 2003. Shaheen, Susan; Meyn, Mollyanne; and Wipyewski, Kamill (2003). "U.S. Shared-Use Vehicle Survey Findings: Opportunities and Obstacles for Car- Sharing and Station Car Growth," Transportation Research Record 1841, pp 90-98. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Shaheen, Susan; Schwartz, Andrew; and Wipyewski, Kamill (2004). "Policy Considerations for Carsharing and Station Cars: Monitoring Growth, Trends and Overall Impacts," Transportation Research Record 1887, pp 128-136. Wash- ington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Page September 2005 2-34

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Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds Shaheen, Susan, Sperling, D. and Wagner, Conrad (1998). "Carsharing in Europe and North America: Past, Present and Future," Transportation Quar- terly, 52(3):35-52. Shaheen, Susan; Wipyewski, Kamill; Rodier, Caroline; Novick, Linda; Meyn, Molly Anne; and Wright, John (2004). Carlink II: A Commuter Carsharing Pilot Program. Final Report. California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-2004- 23. Traue, Roy (2001). MOSES State-of-the-Art Report. Cambio Stadtauto. Ac- cessed March 29, 2004 at heArtReportFINAL.pdf. Vgverket (2003). Make Space for Car-Sharing! Publ. No. 2003:88E. July 2003. Accessed March 29, 2004 at 88/. Wagner, Conrad (2005). Car-Sharing Product Lifecycle. Presentation at Keys to Car-Sharing: Moving the City of Tomorrow, Brussels, 27-28 January 2005. Page 2-35