Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 109 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration A Guidebook for Developing and Sharing Transit Bus Maintenance Practices

OCR for page R1
TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of October 2005) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of September 2005) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT DAVID A. LEE Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Connecticut Transit Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS ANN AUGUST MEMBERS Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT LINDA J. BOHLINGER ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT HNTB Corp. LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT ROBERT I. BROWNSTEIN DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice Pres., Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, PB Consult, Inc. Atlanta, GA PETER CANNITO ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Metropolitan Transportation Authority--Metro JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads North Railroad DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN GREGORY COOK Ann Arbor Transportation Authority NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JENNIFER L. DORN ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL FTA GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, NATHANIEL P. FORD Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles Metropolitan Atlanta RTA BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority RONALD L. FREELAND SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Prof. of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University Parsons Transportation Group JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL FRED M. GILLIAM GLORIA JEAN JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley KIM R. GREEN HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT GFI GENFARE SUE MCNEIL, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, JILL A. HOUGH Newark North Dakota State University JOHN INGLISH MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments Utah Transit Authority CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JEANNE W. KRIEG MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin CELIA G. KUPERSMITH LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District EX OFFICIO MEMBERS PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT CLARENCE W. MARSELLA JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Denver Regional Transportation District REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA FAYE L. M. MOORE GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation of Engineering Authority J. RICHARD CAPKA, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT MICHAEL H. MULHERN THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Jacobs Civil, Inc. JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT STEPHANIE L. PINSON JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. of Energy ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. JACQUELINE GLASSMAN, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DMJM+Harris JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG U.S.DOT Amalgamated Transit Union EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads MICHAEL SCANLON JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials San Mateo County Transit District JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT BEVERLY SCOTT EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sacramento Regional Transit District ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT KATHRYN D. WATERS BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Dallas Area Rapid Transit U.S.DOT FRANK WILSON WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT APTA CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. of Engineers TRB JOHN C. HORSLEY TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AASHTO J. RICHARD CAPKA Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP FHWA JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT (Chair) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology LOUIS SANDERS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association APTA ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board SECRETARY MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA ROBERT J. REILLY C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin TRB LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority

OCR for page R1
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 109 A Guidebook for Developing and Sharing Transit Bus Maintenance Practices JOHN SCHIAVONE Transit Resource Center Guilford, CT S UBJECT A REAS Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

OCR for page R1
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 109 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project E-5 environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-08842-9 of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2005934507 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is 2005 Transportation Research Board necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into Price $24.00 the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation NOTICE Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- Research Council. ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development the three cooperating organizations: FTA, The National Academies, Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Transportation. the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel educational and research organization established by APTA. according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Council. Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Special Notice Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein project. The process for developing research problem statements and solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing project reporting. cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail Published reports of the to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Transportation Research Board Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can and can be ordered through the Internet at cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 109 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Senior Editor BETH HATCH, Editor PROJECT PANEL E-5 Field of Maintenance MICHAEL WEHR, Milwaukee County Transit System, Milwaukee, WI (Chair) FRED M. GILLIAM, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Austin, TX LARRY KUCERA, ATC Phoenix Transit, Phoenix, AZ THOMAS MAZE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA ELISA M. NICHOLS, Kensington Consulting LLC, Kensington, MD DARRYL SPENCER, Dallas Area Rapid Transit STEPHEN M. STARK, MTA New York City Transit FRANK W. VENEZIA, Lea + Elliott, Inc., Naperville, IL GENE WALKER, Golden Gate Bridge, Highway, and Transportation District, San Rafael, CA MICHAEL O'CONNOR, FTA Liaison FRANK N. LISLE, TRB Liaison

OCR for page R1
This report should be of interest to transit bus maintenance managers and others FOREWORD interested in the development of written transit bus maintenance procedures, or "prac- By Christopher W. Jenks tices," and the sharing of these practices with others in the transit industry. The report TCRP Manager provides guidance on how to develop effective transit bus maintenance practices Transportation Research tailored to one's local operating environment. It provides seven sample practices devel- Board oped using the guidance. Complementing this report is an on-line Web Board spon- sored by the Transportation Research Board's Committee on Transit Fleet Mainte- nance. This Web Board allows transit agencies to post their maintenance practices for others to review, revise as necessary for their own operating conditions, and use. The report provides instructions on how to access the Web Board, use it to develop main- tenance practices, and share these practices among transit agencies. People involved in maintenance of transit buses must frequently address issues for which no internal written maintenance practices are available. Consequently, informa- tion must be gathered to assist in determining how best to address the issues. Whether the issue is an equipment problem, an inspection procedure, a campaign replacement, a climatological adaptation, or a routine cleaning, information usually is gathered from other transit systems and vendors, and a maintenance practice is developed to meet the needs of the local system. That practice then becomes the de facto norm for the system until a better way to address the issue is identified. Unfortunately, the results of such efforts are not typically shared with the rest of the transit industry. Consequently, many transit systems, facing the same need to pro- vide detailed work procedures, expend valuable time and resources duplicating the research of other transit systems. Consequently, research was needed to provide guid- ance to transit systems on a methodology for developing bus maintenance practices and sharing them with the rest of the transit industry. The intent of this research was not to develop universal best maintenance practices, but, rather, to assist maintenance man- agers in obtaining and validating relevant information, filling in the gaps where neces- sary, developing a practice most applicable to local conditions, and appropriately shar- ing maintenance practices with the rest of the transit industry. Under TCRP Project E-5, the Transit Resource Center, in collaboration with John Schiavone, Consultant, was asked to develop a guidebook that provides a methodology to assist maintenance managers in developing and sharing bus maintenance practices. To complete the project objective, the research team conducted a review of research in the area of developing and sharing maintenance practices in transit and other related industries, such as trucking, airlines, and defense. A survey of APTA and CTAA mem- bers was also conducted to obtain information on methods that members currently used to develop and share maintenance practices, members' willingness to share mainte- nance practices with others in the industry, members' ideas on the guidebook content,

OCR for page R1
and members' suggestions on maintenance problem areas that would serve as useful case studies in the guidebook. The research team then identified and evaluated currently available tools and information sources that can assist in developing and sharing tran- sit bus maintenance practices and identified the strengths and weaknesses of each tool and information source. Currently available tools and information sources included transit maintenance Web Boards, transit system best practices and process sheets, and vendor-supplied information. Based on the information collected, the research team developed this guidebook. The guidebook contains detailed instructions on how a maintenance manager can develop a maintenance practice based on the local operating environment and provides seven case studies of specific maintenance practices developed using the guidebook process. Concurrent with the development of the guidebook, the research team enhanced an on-line Web Board sponsored by the Transportation Research Board's Committee on Transit Fleet Maintenance. This Web Board allows transit agencies to post their maintenance practices for others to review, revise as necessary for their own operating conditions, and use. The report provides instructions on how to access the Web Board and use it to develop maintenance practices and to share information on transit bus maintenance practices among transit agencies.

OCR for page R1
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Overview, 3 Background and Purpose, 3 Guidebook Structure and Contents, 3 Using this Guidebook, 4 Benefits, 4 Other Transportation Industries, 4 APTA's Bus Standards Activities, 4 Specific Benefits to Bus Transit, 5 Determining the Need for Practices, 5 7 CHAPTER 2 Reference Materials and Web Board Use Overview, 7 Part 1: Legal Considerations, 7 Overview, 7 Intellectual Property, 7 Consequences of Not Protecting Intellectual Property, 9 Examples and Clauses, 9 Web Board Disclaimer, 9 Part 2: Reference Material, 9 Overview, 9 Using the Web Board, 9 Obtaining Reference Material, 10 Part 3: Prioritizing Reference Material, 15 Part 4: Tailoring Practices to Local Conditions, 16 Background, 16 Weather-Related Conditions, 16 Part 5: Developing Time Standards, 17 Uniform Procedures, 18 Establishing Standard Repair Times, 18 Monitoring Time, 18 Setting Policy, 19 Employee and Union Involvement, 19 Other Sources, 19 Part 6: Integrating Practices with Training, 19 Part 7: Regulatory Compliance, 19 Overview, 19 FTA Programs and Requirements, 20 Triennial Review, 20 Model Transit Bus Safety and Security Program, 20 Federal Requirements, 20 The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), 20 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 20 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), 21 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 21 Vehicles, 21 Facilities, 21 Certifications and Licenses, 23 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 23 Buses, 23 Facilities, 23 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 23 Overview, 23 Facility Safety, 24 Personal Safety, 24 State and Local Requirements, 25 OSHA and the EPA, 25 Department of Transportation, 25 Local Health and Environmental Agencies, 25 Uniform Building Codes, 25 Compliance Checklist, 26 Compliance Monitoring, 26

OCR for page R1
Contact List, 26 USDOT, 26 FMVSS, 26 EPA, 27 OSHA, 27 FTA (Also See USDOT), 27 CDC, 27 28 CHAPTER 3 Improving Writing Skills and Using Graphics Overview, 28 Writing Effectively, 28 The Five "Cs" for Good Writing, 28 Tips for Improving Existing Text, 28 Writing Resources, 29 Using Photographs and Graphics, 30 Overview, 30 Acquiring Electronic Picture Files, 30 Storing Files, 30 Inserting Pictures into a Word File, 30 Moving Pictures Around on the Page, 32 Enlarging or Reducing Picture Dimensions, 32 Cropping Pictures, 32 Deleting Pictures, 32 Adding Arrows, Circles, and Labels, 32 Reducing the Size of Word Files, 33 Reducing Photo File Size for Web Board Posting, 33 Troubleshooting, 33 35 CHAPTER 4 Developing and Validating Practices Overview, 35 Developing Practices, 35 MS Word Template, 35 Effort Required, 35 Who Develops the Practice? 35 Step-by-Step Practice Instructions, 36 Validating and Updating Practices, 40 Validating, 40 Updating, 41 42 CHAPTER 5 Uniform Title Format for Sharing Practices Overview, 42 Practice Title Format, 42 Topic Heading, 42 Task Description (If Applicable), 43 Component Application (If Applicable), 43 Bus Application (If Applicable), 43 Posting Practices on the Web Board, 43 44 CHAPTER 6 Sample Maintenance Practices Sample Maintenance Practice #1: Bus PMI; 1990 GMC/RTS/NOVA, 40-Ft High Floor, 46 Sample Maintenance Practice #2: Bus PMI; 2003 STARTRANS Senator, 20-Ft.; Ford E-350 Chassis, 56 Sample Maintenance Practice #3: Component PMI; Thermo King Model T11-M85 AC with IntelligAIRE II; 2004; Gillig; 30-Foot Low Floor, 61 Sample Maintenance Practice #4: Electrical; Repair; All Buses, 74 Sample Maintenance Practice #5: Brakes; Remove and Replace Front Brakes; 2003 STARTRANS Senator, 20-Ft.; Ford E-350 Chassis, 83 Sample Maintenance Practice #6: Body; Door Adjustment; Vapor/NFIL Slide Glide Door; 2002 New Flyer 40LF, 88 Sample Maintenance Practice #7: Service; Service Line Functions, 94 102 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS A-1 APPENDIX A Legal Considerations B-1 APPENDIX B MS Word Template Instructions C-1 APPENDIX C MS Word Template