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10 to small-city, rural, and intercity agencies; general bus fleet Legal Disclaimer. Applies to all users of the Web maintenance; maintenance facilities; clean air technology; Board. EPA emission standards; mechanic certification; training; Guidebook Download. Also includes the MS Word and others. After logging into the Web Board (login instruc- template and instructions. tions are provided below), agencies can read existing Posting and Downloading Existing Agency Practices. messages posted under a variety of headings to obtain infor- General instructions for: mation or post messages to provide information of benefit to Downloading existing agency practices (there are 13 others. heading groups). Uploading practices. Compressing file size. Protocol for naming practices (with title sequence for Maintenance Practices Web Board cataloging purposes). Locating Other Reference Materials. General instruc- TRB's Bus Maintenance Practices Web Board was created tions for locating: as a Guidebook companion to help agencies locate reference Bus and Component OEM Manuals and Bulletins. material, develop practices, and share practices with others. TMC Practices Assembled for APTA. The Web Board contains an electronic version of this Other ATA/TMC Trucking Publications. Guidebook and the MS Word template, both of which can be SAE Publications. downloaded from that site. A hard copy of the template TRB Publications. instructions and the template itself are included as Appen- APTA Publications. dix B and Appendix C, respectively. CTAA Publications. The template includes links to reference sections of the Other materials. Guidebook that contain website addresses that you can input to your web browser, allowing you to review reference mate- It is important to note that the only materials download- rial in one "window" while composing your practice in able from the Maintenance Practices Web Board are the another. For those without Internet access, sufficient contact agency practices posted there, the Guidebook itself, and information is provided in this chapter to obtain reference the MS Word template. All other reference materials must be materials using traditional means (e.g., telephoning and writ- obtained by using the Internet addresses provided. You can ing for materials). also upload (i.e., contribute) any practice to the Web Board regardless of whether it was developed from the Guidebook. Login Information. As with all TRB Web Boards, agen- A sequence to titling the practice found in Chapter 5 must be cies will need to formally log in. To log in, you must followed for cataloging purposes. register as a user of the Transit Fleet Maintenance Com- mittee's Web Board located at http://webboard.trb.org/ Obtaining Reference Material ~A1E16/login. To register, click on "New User," read the "New User Information" material, and complete the regis- Overview tration form. You can also enter the site as a "Guest," but then conferences are limited to read-only access. (Existing The various sections below summarize reference materi- users of the Transit Fleet Maintenance Committee's Web als provided by various sources followed by instructions on Board already have access to this site and do not need to how to obtain the materials. Agencies can use the Internet register again). addresses or the mail/telephone contact information provided To enter the Maintenance Practices Web Board, click on below to request material. Before using any reference mate- the "Maintenance Practices Web Board" conference. A "Use rials, however, it is strongly recommended that you read Part this link for access" message will appear. Click on it, then 1, Legal Considerations, at the beginning of this chapter and click on the "http://webboard.trb.org/~E5/login" address that Appendix A. appears in the column to the right, which will take you directly to the Maintenance Practices Web Board. Existing Agency Practices Structure. The Maintenance Practices Web Board includes Existing agency practices can be a valuable source for refer- the following major conferences, although this structure ence material because they were developed by agencies that may change over time as the Web Board grows and develops: operate similar equipment. Several agencies have posted their practices on the TRB Maintenance Practices Web Board, Instructions for Using This Site. Or use the "Help" which can be downloaded as described above. Those without feature. Internet access will not be able to obtain these practices.

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11 Bus and Component OEM Manuals System, subsystem, and component troubleshooting procedures, including test values. Overview. Bus and major component manufacturers support Component removal and replacement procedures. their products through a variety of maintenance- and repair- Component disassembly, overhauls, re-assembly, and related materials, which serve as the foundation for develop- test procedures, which are typically provided by suppli- ing agency-specific maintenance practices for two important ers to the bus manufacturer. reasons. First, the materials represent the official procedures developed and authorized by the OEM, the company that Formats. OEM publications are typically provided in two actually produced the product. Second, following factory- formats: printed paper (either bound or loose leaf) and authorized procedures is usually required to maintain war- electronic media, such as CDs. Some OEMs supply videos ranty coverage and to receive reimbursement for any product showing specific maintenance procedures, but they tend to be defects. more generic due to their high production costs. In a perfect world, bus manufacturers would supply man- The drawbacks of paper media are well known and include uals that could be used "as is" to guide agencies through the difficulty to distribute, change, update, and discard infor- repair and maintenance tasks. The reality is that tailoring mation. CDs contain all the information found in printed repair and maintenance procedures to match the actual vehi- manuals, but in a much smaller package. In addition to their cle produced and specific agency conditions is the exception, durability and low cost, CDs are easy to revise by bus not the rule. Larger agencies typically have more success in manufacturers and can be distributed more easily than bulky getting OEMs to tailor their maintenance materials, while paper manuals. Additionally, material contained on CDs can those with fewer resources must make due with available be downloaded electronically by agencies for easy distribu- materials. tion to satellite garage facilities. An inherent problem with producing "tailor made" proce- CDs also have the ability to be integrated as source dures is that so many of the components used in buses are documents in an agency's overall maintenance information produced by a variety of vendors, making it difficult to accu- system (MIS). A significant advantage of integrating main- rately reflect the specific vehicle produced for a given tenance manual material with an MIS is the ease with which agency. Another problem is that bus manufacturers often information is changed to suit agency requirements or supplement their own procedures with material produced by updated to reflect changing technology and procedures. component suppliers. As a result, a "gap" often exists where the bus manufacturerdeveloped procedures leave off and Standard OEM Repair Times. In addition to producing the component-specific procedures begin. In other cases, bus repair and parts manuals, most OEMs develop standard OEMs simply use a single procedure to describe similar repair times for common tasks as a basis for determining components supplied by many vendors, and this procedure warranty reimbursement. Most of these times pertain to may not reflect the actual component installed. "remove and replace" procedures, although some OEMs, The incomplete nature of OEM manuals strengthens the especially those manufacturing major components, have need for agencies to "fill in the missing pieces" and develop standard repair times for specific rebuilding procedures. their own practices. Although generic at times, the bulk of When using bus OEM times in practices, agencies should be information provided by bus OEMs is sufficient as a starting aware that the times may not be realistic ones because many point to develop agency-specific practices. are developed as part of the manufacturing process, which may not be applicable to a fully assembled component or Types of OEM Manuals. Typical manuals supplied by bus bus. Additional information on developing time standards is OEMs include: found in Part 5 below. Operator's manuals, which provide instructions on how Contact Information. The first place to obtain vehicle- to operate the bus. related manuals and information is through the bus OEMs. Parts manuals, which list and describe the various They are the entity contracted to build and deliver the bus and replacement parts used in the bus. the party responsible for providing maintenance manuals, Schematics, which show connections and interrelation- even though many subsystems and components (e.g., ships of the many electrical, pneumatic, and hydraulic engines, transmissions, axles, and radios) are provided by systems and subsystems to facilitate troubleshooting others. If adequate material is not available from that source, and testing. or information is required for nonvehicle-specific equip- Service and maintenance manuals, which typically ment (e.g., bus washers or facility equipment), then the sub- contain information on routine maintenance tasks and systems or component supplier/vendor should be contacted recommended service intervals for engine and trans- directly. mission oil changes, filter changes, brake adjustments, Agencies are strongly urged to obtain OEM maintenance/ lubrication of other systems, and periodic inspections. repair manuals and standard repair times (even if worker time

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12 is not monitored) as part of the overall bus procurement. Provide OEMs with any Intelligent Transportation Sys- Agencies should specify OEM material in both hard-copy tem (ITS) and/or MIS interface issues that they need to and electronic formats (e.g., CDs) in varying quantities be aware of when providing electronic documentation. depending on the number of satellite facilities, the number of maintenance personnel, and whether or not the manuals will also be used for training purposes. CDs, however, require Trucking Industry Publications that maintenance personnel have access to a laptop or personal computer, which could also be obtained as part of Background. The American Trucking Association (ATA) the overall bus procurement. Requests for manuals and represents the interests of the trucking industry. The Truck other material should include a requirement that the mate- Maintenance Council (TMC), one of the ATA's councils, rial be updated by the OEM throughout the vehicle's useful provides maintenance and technology support to the trucking life. industry and develops a series of RPs. Several methods can be used to obtain manuals on equip- Much of the equipment used by the trucking industry is ment you already have. Begin by contacting the service rep- similar to that used in transit buses, with many components resentative of the bus or product. If you don't know who the and suppliers common to both. As a result, much can be service representative is, you can get a listing of most suppli- learned from TMC programs with respect to maintenance ers through APTA's Catalog of Member Products and Ser- practices. When researching TMC practices, however, keep vices (COMPS). Although only APTA members are included in mind that TMC RPs reflect a consensus of its members and on the list, the service is available to both members and non- may not be appropriate for all transit bus applications. members free of charge. Those without Internet access can contact APTA's Information Center (see the "APTA" section Truck RPs Assembled for Transit. In one trucking pro- below for details) and they will print a list of suppliers in a gram of particular interest, the TMC, under contract to given area and mail it to you. Otherwise, go to the APTA web- APTA, identified and assembled a collection of trucking RPs site at www.apta.com, click on "Research and Statistics" or closely applicable to transit buses. This collection of nearly "E-Business" and then on "COMPS" for an alphabetical list- 100 RPs, entitled "Recommended Maintenance Practices for ing of transit-related products and services. The listing Transit Buses," was reviewed and endorsed by APTA's Bus includes the contact information (i.e., address, phone, and Equipment and Maintenance Committee. Material contained email) for each supplier. Another method is to undertake a in this collection of off-the-shelf RPs is essential to the general Internet search for the specific company or product. library of resources that agencies should consider when Most bus and component OEMs have websites. Some pro- developing their own maintenance practices. Although the vide open access to manuals, repair times, service bulletins, RPs were written for trucks, much of the material contained and other information on their websites. Some require pass- within the RPs can be applied to buses either directly or with words to enter their sites, while others offer printed material some modification. More importantly, the procedures repre- in various languages. Most OEMs copyright their service sent the best thinking of an industry with vast experiences manuals and have some type of disclaimer regarding and resources. application of the information contained in them. See Part 1, RPs contained in "Recommended Maintenance Practices Legal Considerations, at the beginning of this chapter and for Transit Buses" are grouped under 10 ATA categories: Appendix A for information on using copyrighted material. S.1 Electrical and Instruments Recommendations. Since OEM manuals are essential to S.2 Tires & Wheels every maintenance practice, it is highly recommended that S.3 Engines agencies: S.4 Cab & Controls S.5 Fleet Maintenance Management Request that bus and component OEMs improve the S.6 Chassis dissemination of technical information by placing main- S.8 Cost Control Methods tenance information and standard repair times on their S.11 Vehicle Energy Conservation websites. These requirements can be made through the S.12 Total Vehicle Electronics bus procurement process. S.14 Light- and Medium-Duty Be more specific in bus procurements regarding the type and content of written practices required from the bus As indicated by these categories, some of the nomencla- OEM. ture (e.g., Cab) is specific to trucks but can be applied to Provide more convenient access to OEM manuals by buses. For example, RP 311, Cold Weather Operation, maintenance personnel. provides information useful to agencies operating in cold Maintain up-to-date OEM information in your agency's climates. It includes recommendations for developing a MIS systems. cold weather operation maintenance checklist and provides

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13 information on engine coolants and lubricants, batteries, and Locating SAE Publications. Individual SAE standards can other cold-weather topics developed for trucks but also be found using several methods. "The Ground Vehicle Stan- applicable to buses. Information on obtaining "Recom- dards Index" offers a complete listing of thousands of Infor- mended Maintenance Practices for Transit Buses" is pro- mation Reports, RPs, J-Series Reports, and Handbook sup- vided below under the "APTA" heading. plements. The current cost of this index is $36 for members and $45 for nonmembers. This index can serve as a valuable Other TMC Publications. In addition to those RPs for asset when attempting to locate specific SAE standards when APTA, the ATA maintains and distributes a host of RPs in preparing practices. hard-copy format. The RPs are available to ATA members Individual SAE standards are available at $59 each, either free of charge as part of their annual dues. NonATA in hard-copy version (via postal services) or through an members, however, can purchase hard copies of the RPs indi- Internet-download process. From the SAE home page (see vidually. A two-volume set of all TMC RPs is available to Internet address below) you can search for individual nonmembers at $195, while individual RPs are available standards and obtain a summary of the standard, including to nonmembers at $25 each. the title, publication date, issuing committee, and scope. SAE technical papers can be purchased from the SAE via mail or Contact Information. downloaded at a current cost of about $10.00 each for SAE Mail: members or $12 each for nonmembers. ATC The SAE Handbook, which contains all SAE standards, is Technology & Maintenance Council of the American published in a three-volume set in either hard-copy or CD Trucking Association format. The current fee is $450 for SAE members and $595 2200 Mill Road for nonmembers. Alexandria, VA 22314 SAE publications, including the SAE Handbook, can also be obtained through public libraries, universities, and APTA Telephone: (see "Other Sources for SAE Publications" below for 703-838-1761 or 703-838-1763 additional information). E-mail: Contact Information. tmc@truckline.com Mail: SAE Automotive Headquarters Internet: 755 W. Big Beaver Road, Suite 1600 A complete index of all TMC RPs, which includes a Troy, MI 48084 brief description of each RP, is available from the TMC's website at www.truckline.com. To find the Telephone: RPs, click on "TMC," then on "Recommended 248-273-2455 Practices" in the right-hand column, and then on "Complete listing of all officially adopted RPs." E-mail: automotivehq@sae.org Society of Automotive Engineers Internet: To find SAE standards, go to the SAE website at Overview. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) is www.sae.org. Click on "Shop the SAE Store," then a technical society dedicated to advancing mobility engi- "Standards," and then browse under "Ground neering. Publications include books, RPs, standards, and Vehicle." Under "Repair & Service Operations," for individually authored SAE papers. SAE standards are espe- example, you will find SAE J2210 and J2211 refer- cially helpful in that they are used throughout the world for enced above. Under "Wiring" you can find J1128 and various items such as fasteners, thread sizes, and material J1292, also referenced above. Another method is to properties. use the search feature located on the home page. SAE papers can also be found at www.sae.org by Standards. Several SAE standards could be helpful refer- clicking on "Papers," then by browsing the "Ground ences for transit systems developing specific maintenance Vehicle" area. For example, under "Maintenance and practices. Examples include J2210, "Recovery/Recycling Operations," you can find several useful papers, Equipment for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems," and including #2001-01-2814, "Cooling System Develop- J2211, "Recommended Service Procedure for the Contain- ment and Validation for the Urban Bus." ment of HFC-134a." Others examples include SAE J1128 and J1292, which provide useful information on the mechan- Other Sources for SAE Publications. SAE publications ical properties of electrical wiring. can also be found through other sources. The APTA

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14 Information Center (see "APTA" below for contact infor- TCRP Synthesis 58: Emergency Response Procedures mation) maintains a recent copy of the SAE Handbook, as for Natural Gas Transit Vehicles do many public libraries. Additionally, engineering and TCRP Report 43: Understanding and Applying technical colleges and universities generally have the SAE Advanced On-Board Bus Electronics Handbook and other SAE publications available for TCRP Report 96: Determining Training for New reference. Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide Contact Information. TRB Mail: Keck Center of the National Academies Overview. TRB is a valuable resource for locating reference Transportation Research Board material on a variety of transit topics, including bus mainte- 500 Fifth Street, NW nance and technology. A division of the National Research Washington, DC 20001 Council (NRC), which serves as an independent adviser to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of Telephone: national importance, TRB promotes innovation, progress, 202-334-2934 sharing of information, and technical excellence. The Transit Internet: Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) is administered by The TRB website at www.trb.org is a valuable TRB to develop near-term, practical solutions to problems fac- resource for locating material on all research topics. ing the transit industry. This Guidebook, for example, was From the TRB website, click on "Publications" to find developed under the TCRP program. TCRP topics selected for a catalog of TRB publications, TCRP project reports, research are generated from transit agencies, standing volun- the Transportation Research Information Services teer TRB committees, APTA committees, and others involved (TRIS) database, and many other reports and links to directly with the transit industry. In fact, the problem statement TRB's extensive research databases. You can also use that formed the basis for this Guidebook was generated by the the search function or click on the "TRB Bookstore" TRB Committee on Transit Fleet Maintenance. to find information on how to obtain published Of particular interest to developing maintenance practices research reports. are the TCRP reports and syntheses. Engineering of In addition, www.tcrponline.org will take you Vehicles and Equipment, Engineering of Facilities, and directly to a TCRP dissemination site that is main- Maintenance are three research fields of special interest. tained by APTA on behalf of the TCRP and contains One example is TCRP Report 29: Closing the Knowledge all of the TCRP publications, including those listed Gap for Transit Maintenance Employees: A Systems Ap- above. Once at the site, you can use the search func- proach, which presents guidelines on evaluating and imple- tion or choose from general topics. The "Publica- menting strategies to improve maintenance workforce tions" section of the TCRP site includes two cate- skills. Several agencies have distributed copies to their gories of special interest: Bus Transit--Maintenance, maintenance personnel, use the report as a basis for staff and Bus Transit--Technology. Both categories con- meetings, or use the document as a basic text for mainte- tain the various TCRP reports and syntheses available. nance management training classes. These publications can be ordered from APTA at Other TCRP publications of interest to maintenance www.tcrponline.org. practices include: TCRP Synthesis 1: Safe Operating Procedures for APTA Alternative Fuel Buses TCRP Synthesis 7: Regulatory Impacts of Design and Overview. APTA is a nonprofit international association of Retrofit of Bus Maintenance Facilities over 1,500 public and private member organizations, includ- TCRP Synthesis 9: Waste Control Practices at Bus ing transit systems; planning, design, construction, and Maintenance Facilities finance firms; product and service providers; academic TCRP Synthesis 12: Transit Bus Service Line and institutions; transit associations; and state departments of Cleaning Functions transportation. Over 90 percent of persons using public TCRP Synthesis 22: Monitoring Bus Maintenance transportation in the United States and Canada are served by Performance APTA members. TCRP Synthesis 44: Training for On-Board Bus Electronics Recommended Maintenance Practices for Transit Buses. TCRP Synthesis 54: Maintenance Productivity Several APTA activities and publications can be of assis- Practices tance to agencies in developing maintenance practices. As