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18 budgeting, and scheduling; allows worker productivity to be Time each task identified in the agency's maintenance measured; and serves as a useful tool in directing training practice. For example: resources. Use of SRTs varies from agency to agency and Turn engine control switch to "off" and open engine may not be appropriate for all. For those who see the merit in and transmission access doors: 30 sec. establishing them, the practice format presented in Chapter 4 Remove air conditioning belt guard: 5 min, 20 sec. includes a section where SRTs can be entered. Total the times to determine the SRT for the entire Basic requirements for establishing SRTs include: job. Time the complete job by monitoring workers of vari- Establishment of uniform practices to ensure that each ous skill levels as they follow the written practice, and worker is measured against equal tasks, then use the average time to arrive at a fair SRT. A process for establishing and validating the times so Use SRTs developed by other agencies and adapt them that they are in fact fair for the skill level required and to your own requirements. can be repeated over time, A process to accurately monitor worker time on each job, Regardless of the timing method used, agencies need to con- A policy on how the standard times will be used within sider many of the peripheral activities surrounding the job that the agency, and must be accounted for in the SRT, such as the time needed to: Involvement by maintenance workers and their union in developing SRTs. Move the vehicle to and from the work area; Obtain and complete any necessary documentation; Uniform Procedures Obtain standard tools, special tools, and replacement parts; It would be unfair to expect workers to perform to a given Take periodic work breaks; time standard unless there is a practice that defines the work Address any unforeseen problems that may develop procedures for all to follow in a uniform manner. This Guide- during the repair (e.g., if a fastener snaps during its book provides the information needed to develop those prac- removal, it takes on additional procedure to remove the tices. Without such practices, workers are free to choose broken stud); whatever steps they feel are needed in order to "meet" the set Clean up afterward; and time period. Practices are absolutely essential to provide the Dispose of any hazardous waste. consistency needed to measure all workers equally and fairly. SRTs also need to be based on the proficiency levels and Establishing Standard Repair Times job classifications (e.g., A-level mechanic and journeyman) of those authorized to do the jobs. Once developed, SRTs Agencies use a variety of methods to establish SRTs. The need to be validated to ensure they represent realistic time most comprehensive are based on industrial engineering (IE) allotments and do not compromise work quality or safety. processes that involve studying each work task, organizing This validation is typically done by timing separately sev- those tasks in a logical and efficient sequence, assigning eral properly trained and qualified workers or experienced times to each task, and monitoring worker performance to supervisors as they perform the job. Based on collective fine-tune and validate the process. Some agencies, such as feedback, procedures and times can then be adjusted accord- Milwaukee County Transit System, employ an industrial ingly. The validation process continues by periodically engineer to develop practices and SRTs, as the two are so monitoring worker time on a given job and comparing it closely allied. IE protocols used to develop SRTs can be with the established SRT to determine the percentage of on- reviewed in two publications: Industrial Engineering Hand- time completions. book by Morley H. Mathewson2 and Industrial Engineering Methods and Controls by Donald R. Herzog3. Agencies that develop SRTs typically apply fundamental Monitoring Time IE concepts as a starting point using one or more of the fol- lowing steps: SRTs are only effective if an agency has a way to accurately monitor worker time to determine if the SRTs are being met. Start with OEM-recommended "flat rate" times estab- Most agencies use work orders (also called repair orders) to lished for warranty reimbursement, and modify them monitor time by having workers write down start and stop based on the agency's own historical information. times or use punch-style time clocks. Data entry clerks typi- cally enter the information into the agency's MIS, which 2 Mathewson, M.H., Industrial Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, breaks out the various jobs and related times. Other agencies New York, NY, 1963. 3 Herzog, D.R., Industrial Engineering Methods and Controls, Reston Publishing use more sophisticated methods that involve bar codes and Company, Reston, VA, 1985. other electronic monitoring devices. In addition to monitoring