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19 the entire job time, some agencies monitor job segments to are case study examples of agency-developed SRT programs, determine where employees are having the most problems. time study analysis charts, a comprehensive bibliography and reference list, and other helpful information. TCRP Synthesis 22: Monitoring Bus Maintenance Performance also contains Setting Policy information on monitoring time and using SRTs.6 These and other TCRP studies are available through TRB and APTA as Agencies that monitor worker time use the information in a described in Part 2 above. variety of ways. Some use SRTs to provide employee incen- Another helpful publication is TMC RP 804, "Labor tives, to impose disciplinary action, or to direct additional train- Productivity Measurement," included in "Recommended ing in specific areas. Other agencies, especially those where Maintenance Practices for Transit Buses," the collection of workers frequently rotate into different jobs, monitor per-job nearly 100 TMC RPs available through APTA (also time but choose not to establish specific time standards. Instead, described in Part 2 above). Although this RP is based on the they use the times as a general indication to gauge overall TMC's unique coding system, it contains useful information worker performance across all jobs. If productivity diminishes and worksheets on monitoring worker time that can be over time on certain jobs, the worker can be called in to deter- modified for individual agency use. mine the reason. Other agencies choose to select an acceptable time range rather than imposing one set time for all to adhere. Regardless of how agencies use time standards, the policy on time standards needs to be shared with workers so they clearly PART 6: INTEGRATING PRACTICES understand how their performance is being measured. WITH TRAINING For agencies with in-house training programs, mainte- Employee and Union Involvement nance practices can become part of the curriculum where classroom instructional material corresponds to actual work Employee and union involvement is absolutely essential to expectations on the shop floor. For agencies that rely on out- improving worker productivity. Although the subject of side training programs or hire prequalified workers, practices establishing time standards may be awkward, both labor and document how each job is to be performed regardless of management must participate in the process, and each must where workers received their training or experiences. come to see the benefits in establishing SRTs for the program The effort put into developing maintenance practices has a to be successful. The process to develop time standards secondary benefit in that the procedures and information con- includes many opportunities for management and labor to tained in them can easily become a source for conducting both work together, and union managers can be convinced of the classroom and hands-on training. The appropriateness of benefits of adopting SRTs.4 using the practices in training programs depends on the level In addition to labor and management working together, of detail contained within the practices. One approach is to successful programs to develop SRTs include: detail the training material and make the practices a summary of that material. In this case, workers can use the practice to An agreed upon process for resolving disputed SRTs refresh their memory in key areas, referring to more detailed and validating them, training material as needed. Another approach is to make the An emphasis on improving worker productivity and practices detailed enough to serve as stand-alone training doc- directing training rather than disciplinary action, umentation. In either case, practices that become an integral An agreed upon policy on how SRT performance will part of an agency's training program can avoid a duplication affect staffing levels and the outsourcing of jobs, and of effort and the potential for inconsistencies between train- Incentives given to those who meet an established per- ing instructions and actual shop-floor expectations. As with centage of SRTs. all training materials, written practices must be made easily available to all maintenance employees. Other Sources Several publications are available to help agencies develop PART 7: REGULATORY COMPLIANCE SRTs, including the two books referenced above on IE principles. Of particular interest is TCRP Synthesis 54: Main- Overview tenance Productivity Practices, which includes several case studies of agencies implementing SRT programs.5 Included Many federal, state, and local regulations apply to transit bus maintenance. These regulations are extensive, vary by 4 Venezia, F.W., TCRP Synthesis 54: Maintenance Productivity Practices, Trans- jurisdiction, and directly affect the repair and inspection of portation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2004. 5 6 Venezia, F.W., TCRP Synthesis 54: Maintenance Productivity Practices, Trans- Schiavone, J.J., TCRP Synthesis 22: Monitoring Bus Maintenance Performance, portation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2004. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1997.