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25 caustic chemicals. Personnel must be provided with a written specific areas where local jurisdictions often monitor federal program (i.e., practice) that includes proper procedures for requirements: machinery disconnects and notifications to ensure that no mechanical components are activated inadvertently. Forklift training certification, Additionally, posted signs requiring PPE must be visible to Confined space entry training, all employees using certain machinery and equipment. AC system maintenance and technician training, and Appropriate PPE also must be available close to hazardous Air brake maintenance and technician training. equipment or procedures. In addition, some chemicals or substances used in the Most state and local agencies interpret federal law and enforce workplace require that employees' health be monitored on a accordingly. As mentioned above, some state and local regular basis for exposure to toxins. Some agencies are large requirements are more stringent than those established at enough to have their own medical staff for physicals and the federal level. drug testing, while others use contracted companies. Medical monitoring is most frequently done for those exposed to dust hazards such as grinding, cutting, and blast- Department of Transportation ing work. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which is part of the Centers for Disease Each state has local motor vehicle regulations that are regu- Control (CDC), provides information on medical monitor- lated by the state's own department of transportation (DOT) or ing. Use the contact list at the end of this section to obtain department of motor vehicles (DMV). Agencies need to under- additional information. stand these regulations because these regulations apply to many facets of vehicle operation, maintenance, repair, and inspection. Suggestion: Develop practices incorporating all relevant For example, DOT and DMV regulations clearly specify the OSHA and EPA requirements and include instructions to type of license required to operate a transit bus in revenue or verify that all safety equipment is available and in good working order. Also document safety-related inspections nonrevenue service and the level of maintenance required for required by OSHA and have these files available for audit specific equipment. These agencies also establish requirements purposes. for braking performance, axle weights, and pre-trip inspections. The vast majority of OSHA requirements are common- sense safety precautions that can sometimes be overlooked in Local Health and Environmental Agencies maintenance shops. A proper approach to safety is one where practices include procedures that: Local health and environmental agencies typically regulate such issues as sewer systems, storm water and drainage sys- Eliminate slip and trip hazards; tems, worker health, and hazardous materials management. Eliminate hazards from frayed electrical cords and dam- Practices worth developing spell out procedures for local per- aged high-pressure hoses; mit compliance and renewal, such as practices for preparing Ensure access to all emergency equipment, such as fire and collecting MSDSs and describing how employees can extinguishers, electrical panels, eye wash stations, and access them and practices for conducting periodic safety first aid kits; and inspections, including the timeframe (e.g., monthly or quar- Include safety instructions describing proper labeling, terly) and person(s) responsible for ensuring compliance. maintenance, and operation for fueling equipment, In addition, if a facility is ever used for procedures involv- hoists, steam cleaners, and pits. ing certain toxic chemicals or substances, such as lead (i.e., as in paint, piping, or fuels) and asbestos (i.e., as in brake linings or fire-resistant coverings), or has stored or used these STATE AND LOCAL REQUIREMENTS items in construction, monitoring the air quality in the facility on a regular basis may be required. Employees working at the As mentioned above, many states have established their facility may also be required to continue medical monitoring own programs to comply with federal regulations. Use the of their health for exposure to these toxins. Practices that detail contacts provided at the end of this section to obtain addi- monitoring requirements are certainly worth developing. tional information; also contact your local health, labor, and safety departments. Uniform Building Codes OSHA AND THE EPA Inspections Many states and urban areas have OSHA and EPA agen- Facilities, depending on their age and function, need to cies to enforce federal laws at the local level. Below are some comply with uniform building codes (UBCs) and National