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36 but doing so requires staff time. Another approach is to hire Step 1: Practice Title an experienced consultant to work collaboratively with the agency. Regardless of who develops the practices, it is essen- Notes: The title is important because, if done properly, it tial that the same person(s) write the practice to maintain provides a concise description that accurately reflects a spe- consistency. Once a process for developing practices is cific maintenance job. Agencies can use their own title for- established, agencies are strongly urged to document that mat to name practices. For example, some agencies may process to preserve it as a reference. have a specific numeric or letter code protocol associated with specific jobs that needs to be included in the title. You can also use the title format developed for this proj- ect. It was created to establish a uniform cataloging pro- Team Effort between Management and Labor cedure to make it easier to post and locate agency practices Developing a practice requires a team effort. Any practice on the Web Board. The format consists of four distinct with potential safety implications must involve the agency's sections linked together to form one title name. Instruc- safety officer if one exists. It is also essential that manage- tions for creating a practice title using this format are ment work with labor and its union to develop work proce- found in Chapter 5. Regardless of the title format ulti- dures that both sides can agree upon. The ideal approach mately decided upon for internal agency use, those shar- involves mechanically experienced supervisory personnel ing their practices with others on the TRB Web Board working together with the agency's finest mechanics as a must use the title sequence presented in Chapter 5 for cat- team. Whereas supervisors may be a few years removed from aloging purposes. actual hands-on involvement, the agency's most qualified mechanics have current insight into the procedures needed to Step 2: Agency Name get the job done right. As mentioned earlier, labor and union involvement is essential to any program that strives to agement will cause workers to accept the program and appre- ciate being recognized for good production, and a spirit of cooperation will develop.8 In the end, the goal of developing Step 3: Date maintenance practices is to improve work skills and the working environment, not to find reasons for punishing or fir- Examples: December 10, 2004 (Supersedes April 15, 1996); March 5, 2005 (Original Issue) Step-by-Step Practice Instructions Step 4: Page Numbering This section provides step-by-step instructions for pre- paring maintenance practices. It serves as a suggested best for their operation and that is realistic given the Example: Page 1 of 18. agency's resources. Some will decide to use the format Notes: Consider including the practice title, agency name, presented here as is, while others will leave out certain issue date, and page number all combined into a footer steps, add others, or rearrange the order. Again, the choice located at the bottom of each page. (The Word template is yours. The comprehensive nature of the format provided instructions found in Appendix B include the steps needed here ensures that all essential elements of a practice are for including the footer). addressed should you decide to use them. The Word tem- plate included as Appendix C is based on this format, but it, too, can be modified to suit your particular needs. Sample Step 5: Legal Disclaimer practices shown in Chapter 6 were developed around this format. Remember, the template includes links to specific Notes: The TRB Web Board contains the following gen- sections of the Guidebook to assist you in the practice- eral disclaimer that applies to all Web Board users: Those development process. downloading practices from the TRB Web Board do so 8 "Labor Productivity Measurement," Recommended Maintenance Practices for Tran- with the understanding that: sit Buses, TMC Recommended Practice RP-804, Prepared for the American Public Transportation Association by the Technology and Maintenance Council of the Amer- The information contained in the published content is pro- ican Trucking Association, Washington, DC, 2002. vided as a service to the bus transit community and does

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37 not constitute advice. Every attempt was made to provide Step 7: Purpose quality information for the purposes outlined for this pro- ject, but we make no claims, promises, or guarantees about practices can change without notice, nothing provided Notes: A short statement describing the purpose of the herein should be used as a substitute for the advice of com- practice informs maintenance personnel that they have the petent mechanics and/or maintenance crews. correct practice for the job at hand and allows you to emphasize any special points. It also gives other agencies For most agencies, this generic disclaimer posted on the additional insight into the practice. For example, the state- Web Board will be sufficient. If not, you could repeat the ment below emphasizes that a removed starter will be Web Board disclaimer or insert any other disclaimer that rebuilt instead of being discarded: you deem appropriate directly into this section of the prac- tice. While agencies do not typically include disclaimers on This maintenance practice provides instructions for the practices intended for their own employees, including one proper removal and replacement (R&R) of starter motor on practices shared with other agencies clearly forewarns and related parts on a 2000 Orion V bus, including proper methods for returning the removed starter as a core to the other agencies that your agency is not liable for the infor- parts department. mation provided. Review Part 1 of Chapter 2 and Appendix A for additional information and samples of other dis- Other points might include instructions for special safety claimers. Again, the generic Web Board disclaimer may be procedures, instructions for installing a correct part when sufficient. If so, there is no need to use this section to add a other parts could be used mistakenly, or instructions for disclaimer to your practice. using special tools that you may want to reemphasize. For example: This maintenance practice provides instructions for the Step 6: Copyright Information proper removal and replacement of rear radius rod bush- ings on a 2000 Orion V bus, including instructions for using special tool #123. Notes: Inserting copyright information depends on how much original material (i.e., intellectual property of oth- ers) was used in your practice and how much copyright Step 8: Glossary of Terms protection you desire for your own material. Concerning material used from other sources, a dedicated section in author(s). This is especially important if you use large Notes: Maintenance personnel in all transportation fields amounts of information "as is" or an illustration from a use a variety of terms to describe the same part, compo- protected (i.e., copyrighted) source. It is strongly recom- nent, or procedure. A "differential" to one mechanic may mended that you cite your sources so that readers will not be known as a "rear-end," "diff," or "pumpkin" to others. be misled into thinking that the information originated Agencies may want to consider including a glossary to with you or your agency. You must request permission clearly define words or procedures so that maintenance from the author(s) before using pictures and/or large personnel, including those from other locations and agen- amounts of text. The following is an example of credit cies, all have a common understanding. given to the authors of material used in an agency practice: Unfortunately, the transit industry does not publish a list of standard maintenance terms. However, in cases where The information contained in this maintenance practice is multiple terms apply, it is recommended to use the one based on illustrations and information provided by the referred to in the OEM manuals. XYZ Company as contained in their Maintenance Manual, pages 88-93. Permission to use the copyrighted material was granted by the XYZ Company. Step 9: Summary of Local Conditions Concerning copyright protection for your own material, copyright law automatically protects any original material want to add a copyright symbol to dissuade others from Notes: While many practices apply equally regardless of improperly using your material. Additional information on the climate, shop condition, or duty cycle, certain proce- the use of copyrights is provided in Chapter 2, Part 1, and dures vary depending on those conditions. This practice in Appendix A. section allows agencies to include a summary of any

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38 special steps taken as a result of a condition unique to the For those that require mandatory replacement of parts operation. This summary can be important for two reasons. for specific repairs and rebuilds, some agencies find it One is to alert maintenance personnel, some of whom may more effective to kit parts together (i.e., group all needed come from different climates and shop environments, of parts together in one package). Doing so makes all the importance of following certain procedures that they replacement parts conveniently available and saves time may not understand as being necessary. The other is to give by not having the parts clerk retrieve each part separately. other agencies that are considering your practice additional For those who want to calculate the total cost for each insight to determine if all sections are applicable to their maintenance activity for budgeting purposes, the total particular maintenance operation and climate. cost of the parts used in the practice could be totaled and When preparing material for this section, agencies may combined with the labor cost (see Step 11) to produce a need to step back and think about conditions that are in fact total job cost. This information is also useful for deter- unique to those "looking in" from outside the agency. For mining if it is more cost effective to outsource certain example, special precautions taken to prepare buses for jobs. Although costing information can be derived winters in an extremely cold climate are commonplace to from the practice, actual costs should not be listed in the someone from New York, but may be unfamiliar to some- practice. one from Phoenix. Below are two examples of local condition summaries: Step 11: Time Standard This practice for performing daily refueling and service line functions includes a special procedure for removing tree This practice for performing a 6,000-mile PM inspection Notes: The use of time standards depends on each includes special procedures for ensuring air intake sealing agency's management approach. Including a standard to prevent excessive airborne dirt, which is common in this makes it clear that the agency expects the job to be done environment, from bypassing the air filter and entering the engine. in a certain amount of time. It is also useful for budgeting and staffing purposes. Part 5 of Chapter 2 contains addi- Part 4 of Chapter 2 describes how OEMs and agencies tional information on developing and using standard have altered their practices to conform to special weather repair times (SRTs). conditions. Also included are two Internet sites that pro- vide climatic information that agencies might find helpful when writing their practices or when considering another Step 12: Special Tools agency's practice. Notes: Some jobs require the use of special tools, which Step 10: Parts usually consist of tools not typically found in a mechanic's tool box, such as tools issued by the OEM, or tools that extend beyond the basic tool requirements established by Notes: Many maintenance jobs require replacement parts. the agency. Listing these tools in the practice helps to Some agencies allow maintenance personnel to make a ensure that workers will use them and will obtain the cor- part-replacement determination, while others make certain rect ones prior to beginning the job. replacements mandatory. Regardless of the policy, includ- ing a list of replacement parts directly in the practice makes certain that correct parts will be used and streamlines the Step 13: Safety Precautions/Applicable process of obtaining parts from the parts department. Doing Regulations so, however, requires that practices be updated every time a part is superseded. Muffler and Isolator Mount) followed by its numerical Notes: Virtually every maintenance practice is subject to part number. If the practice applies to a range of buses or environmental, health, or safety regulations. These regu- components that use different parts, be sure to include the lations can be extensive and complex. Some require application for each (e.g., Muffler, New Flyer 4000-4100 mandatory compliance, while others are voluntary. Series, #092-11-021). Also include any other information Agencies are urged to consult with the appropriate staff needed for that part, including superseded numbers or (e.g., agency attorney or safety officer) if available to alternative numbers if parts are available from different determine which maintenance tasks require regulation vendors. compliance. A summary of the various regulations and

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39 their impact on maintenance practices is found in Chap- Step 15: Step-by-Step Procedures ter 2, Part 7. Including applicable regulations in the practice is not requirements. This will help workers understand that there Notes: This section represents the heart of the maintenance are factors outside the agency's control that require them practice because it identifies each task that the worker to carry out a task in a very specific manner. Below is an must follow to successfully accomplish the job at hand. example of wording that might be used in a practice for The material used in the step-by-step instructions is based removing and replacing a muffler. on the agency's own experiences and its review of applic- able reference material, especially the OEM manuals, as The procedures used in this practice comply with exhaust described in Parts 2 and 3 of Chapter 2. Documenting system routing requirements set forth in the USDOT Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49CFR393. work procedures based solely on existing agency experi- ences is not recommended because the "existing way" When it comes to safety precautions, some are legally may not be the best, the most efficient, or legal. Review- required while others are based upon OEM recommenda- ing OEM manuals, similar practices developed by other tions, agency experiences, and just plain common sense. agencies, and publications from other sources will most The purpose of informing workers in a separate practice likely introduce methods that may have been overlooked section is to prepare them in advance of the safety precau- or unknown. tions that must be followed, such as: The level of detail provided in the step-by-step instruc- tions must be sufficient for the worker to understand each Wearing eye, face, foot, ear, hand, and other protection; job task and can be handled in one of two ways. One is Hoisting, lifting, and jacking vehicles; to make practice instructions a summary of more detailed Cleaning up any lubricants that may fall on the shop material used in the agency's formal training program or floor; included in OEM manuals. In this case, the practice sim- Not overfilling components that contain lubricants; ply refreshes the worker's memory on more detailed Not smoking when performing certain tasks; material found elsewhere. If this is the case, include a Turning off battery power when performing certain reference to the supplemental material at the beginning tasks; and of this practice section. The other way is to make the Reading other safety material or bulletins before start- instructions so comprehensive that they include all of ing a job. the information needed to carry out the work. Whereas the first approach would instruct workers to raise the bus on a lift and would refer workers to other material for Step 14: Hazardous Materials instructions on how to place a specific bus on a specific lift, the second approach would include all of the infor- is found in Part 6 of Chapter 2. Notes: Some jobs involve hazardous materials that work- The most effective instructions are those that are num- ers need to be informed of in advance. Again, agencies bered sequentially, that break up each task using short are strongly urged to determine which materials are clas- descriptions, and that begin with a clear command. The sified hazardous and the procedures for handling and dis- example below describes the first few steps of a practice posing of them because requirements vary by region. A to remove and replace a rear wheel seal. summary of the various regulations that include haz- Step 1: Raise bus on lift to needed height. ardous material is found in Part 7 of Chapter 2. Examples Step 2: Back off rear brakes by turning slack adjuster, of maintenance practices that may generate hazardous adjusting hex nut counterclockwise using a 12-mm Allen materials include: wrench. Step 3: Remove wheel lugs with an impact gun. Step 4: Remove both rear wheels/tires. Handling and disposal of waste oil and filters; Handling and disposal of particulate filters (i.e., exhaust Include as many individual steps as needed to describe each filters to reduce emissions); task, inserting pictures and other graphics where appropriate, Handling and discharge of air conditioning refrigerants; and using a clear, concise, and understandable writing style and as described in Chapter 3. Examples of sample practices Handing, application, and disposal of paints. developed from this guidance are included in Chapter 6.