and cognitive disorders. Current studies include investigations of prenatal risks for schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, and addictive disorders; work on the long-term effects of maternal smoking on offspring health and behavior; community-level influences on youth substance use and delinquency; and community-based strategies for the prevention of adolescent drinking and drug use. He has served on multiple panels for the National Institutes of Health and other federal organizations.

R. Alta Charo, J.D., is the Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics at the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW), where she is on the faculty of the Law School and the Department of Medical History and Bioethics at the medical school. She also serves on the faculty of the UW Masters in Biotechnology Studies program and lectures in the master’s of public health program of the Department of Population Health Sciences. Alta Charo (B.A., biology, Harvard, 1979; J.D., Columbia, 1982) is an elected member of the World Technology Network (2004) and the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters (2005). In 2006 she was elected to membership in the National Academies’ Institute of Medicine. Professor Charo served on President Obama’s transition team, where she was a member of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services review team, focusing her attention particularly on transition issues related to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), bioethics, stem cell policy, and women’s reproductive health. She was on leave from 2009 to 2011 to serve as a senior policy adviser on emerging technology issues in the Office of the Commissioner at FDA. Professor Charo offers courses on public health law, bioethics, biotechnology law, food and drug law, reproductive rights, torts, and legislative drafting. In addition, she has served on the UW Hospital clinical ethics committee, the University’s Institutional Review Board for the protection of human subjects in medical research, and the University’s Bioethics Advisory Committee. Professor Charo’s advisory committee service for the federal government includes the 1994 NIH Human Embryo Research Panel and President Clinton’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission (1996 to 2001), where she participated in drafting its reports Cloning Human Beings (1997), Research Involving Persons with Mental Disorders that May Affect Decision-making Capacity (1998), Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical Issues and Policy Guidance (1999), Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research (1999), Ethical and Policy Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries (2001), and Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants (2001). From 2001 to 2008 she was a member of the Board on Life Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academies. She served as its liaison to the

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