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use of R scripts (for statistical computing) or specialized gene analysis tools (like “Plink.”). The output is a normalized dataset.

Stage 3: Genomic Analysis— This involves identifying regions in the genome associated with clinical phenotypes and other molecular traits. The Sage Genetic Analysis Pipeline, which consists of a set of R and C programs, is used. Statistical analysis is applied to identify interesting loci significantly associated with specific phenotypes (e.g., clinical phenotypes such as cQTL).

Stage 4: Network Construction— This stage focuses on building a network using a statistical technique to capture how biological entities, such as genes, are related to each other. Networks can contain up to 100 thousand nodes. In the network, nodes represent biological entities of some type (a gene, a protein, or even a physiological trait) and edges represent relationships between pairs of nodes. The output could be a correlation network (undirected graph) or a Bayesian network (directed, acyclic graph).

Stage 5: Network Analysis— This involves examining the network to determine how its function can be modulated by a specific subset of biological nodes. The output may be a list of genes or a sub-network. The networks from the previous steps are analyzed using techniques like Key Driver Analysis to determine a subset of interest.

Stage 6: Data Mining— A report validating claims from network analysis is produced by a domain specialist with knowledge of the study domain. This stage uses resources from the literature and public databases to assess the predictions. The information is used to annotate network models to build the case for the involvement of genes in the functioning of the network.

Stage 7: Experiment Validation— In the final stage, laboratory experiments are devised and performed to test the claims of the model. Validation is not carried out at Sage Bionetworks, but is completed in partnership with Sage Bionetworks collaborators.

Such a complex process presents challenges for reproducibility and citation. Data curation is required as a first step to do basic data validation to ensure integrity and completeness, and to ensure that the format of the data is understood and the required metadata is present. Agreed standards are also required for data sharing. We have to make sure that the data from different sources can be described, shared, used, and make the discovery process easier.

The project has employed the workflow tool, Taverna3, which helps to document the data processes and enables the workflow to be re-enacted. The workflow can also be registered with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Capturing the workflow and assigning an identifier supports better citation because the cited resource is more re-usable, and strengthens the reproducibility and validation of the research.

Finally, we can describe the challenges for using data citation with the purpose of giving attribution and supporting reproducibility within this specific context. The challenges for attribution include:



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