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involved, and the like). There is a narrative context and we are using it to prove a point, so the data act as a key point for life scientists to communicate with other scientists. There are big questions that we are tackling and it is very important that the data are maintained and preserved.

Now let me ask this question: why do not the scientists themselves keep track of their own experimental design, their observed results and their code of statistics? They can share part of this with the publisher. Similarly, they can share with the data repositories. They can share the experimental design, the data and the code of statistics, using cloud computing. Imagine scientists using the cloud to store their research, find their results, experiments, and observations. I think it is truly important that as research keeps building, there are good systems in which researchers can keep track of their own data, store them, and add appropriate metadata.

The assignment of unique identifiers plays a central role in the advertisement of these materials. Data centers are able to connect datasets and promote them. They can also advertise them. The role of data centers in terms of quality control and access is very critical and, as we saw earlier in this meeting, this differs from one field to another.

So, if we are publishing a paper with data, all we need to do is to deposit our document in a repository and allow access to an editor or somebody who we think can evaluate our work. Then, we would have access to the collective thoughts as well as to links to the data, to the workflow, to the other science components, and to a publisher or somebody in the role of validating quality.

I think these and similar practices will connect more in the future and publishers, data repositories, and perhaps software developers (e.g., Microsoft, Google, Skype, Twitter, or Dropbox) will be involved in these processes. We all use commercial software all the time. These programs are very good at building tools that help us communicate. Therefore, it is very useful to have such companies working with us on improving communication between scientists by encouraging them to build better software and applications.

Citizen science was mentioned earlier as well. Citizens can also play a key role in these processes and we should be keen to involve them. Again, some technological components and applications are now in place and can facilitate these processes.

Let me conclude by emphasizing that, in my view, publishers are not interested in owning or charging for data. We believe in identifiers and embrace open standards and I think that scientists should keep track of their own work. We certainly believe in a future where science is shared and stored in a better and productive way, as well as in working together with all stakeholders to make it happen.



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