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We are almost to a point where we have identifiers for all of the elements of a citation. Identifier standards exist, or are being developed, for names (ORCID or ISNI), affiliations (Institutional Identification, I2), publications (ISBN or ISSN), collections (ISCI), and persistent URLs (DOI, ARC, or PURL), and dates. Each of these standards could be incorporated into actionable URIs and those URIs, along with the associated metadata, could be served to the community as part of linked data stores. The implications of this shift of meaningful connections and machine references to a wealth of additional information could be tremendous. For example, an unambiguous name identifier could bring a user more than just the name of the referenced the author; it could also provide links to everything else this author has published. Another link in that URI-based citation could connect to everything else in this package or collection.

On several occasions during this meeting, we discussed the development of the Open Researcher and Contributor Identification (ORCID) initiative whose goal is to establish a unique identifier for each researcher in the scholarly communication process. This project is closely related to the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) standard (ISO 27729). This standard was recently approved for publication and it defines an identifier for any “parties” involved in the content creation process across all media. Both of these initiatives will probably launch in 2012 and will provide us a great opportunity for uniquely identifying content contributors and clearly distinguishing between people with the same or similar names. NISO’s own Institutional Identifier (I2) project will be utilizing the ISNI and its infrastructure to identify institutions and to provide metadata about them, including its links to parent or sub-organizations, such as departments. Combining these new identifiers with existing standards, such as the ISBN or ISSN, we are approaching a time where all of the information in a citation can be replaced with URIs.

So, when we talk about standards for data citation, what do we mean? There are a variety of things we could standardize that are related to, for example, discovering the data locating it, describing it, sharing it, preserving it, and for interoperating with it. But which are the most important to pursue? The problem with setting priorities is that each person or each field has different challenges and needs. What is a critical issue for one community is of secondary or tertiary concern to another. Here is my list of the things that I believe is being a high priority for good citations in a digital world:

1-  Disambiguation of the item.

2-  Location of the item (either in physical or digital form or both).

3-  Attribution and disambiguation of the author.

4-  Ability to reuse and preserve.

You may think there are other priorities; for example, ontologies and terminologies, privacy issues, rights and intellectual property issues, database size and complexity, and refresh pace and update frequency.

Identifying the most critical needs is really the first step. Mark Parsons said it well yesterday: if we can solve 80 percent of our problems with an 80/20 solution, we should do that. In large part, that is what standards do. Perhaps the data citation group that organized this meeting should spend some time focusing on which issues are secondary to the bigger goal of sharing data and then focus its attention on those things most critical to creating a culture of digital data citation.

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