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links to relevant guidance documents and examples. It is available at:

The America Competes Authorization Act that passed at the end of December 2010 required the formation of federal interagency groups to discuss two major issues: public access to publications and the data supported (in whole or in part) by federal funds. A group on digital data at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy is specifically looking at data policies and data standards. I also want to underscore the role of university and other institutional libraries and repositories, not only in acting as repositories but in actively developing systems for dealing with what everyone recognizes as a major challenge of metadata, including minimum metadata, usage generated metadata systems, software metadata, and the like.

I want to acknowledge as well schools of information science, which are helping to develop protocol software and systems that we use. The scientific societies also need to be acknowledged, since they are becoming clearer in their ethics statements and in their expectations for membership about the necessity of having not only citable publications, but also citable data.

Let me conclude by summarizing what I have heard over the last two days:

•  Basically, citation is a fundamental ethic in science and it is the right thing to do.

•  There is a great enthusiasm and support for data access, sharing, use, and citation and attribution.

•  Technologies, per se, are not an urgent problem. It is the cultural and sociological challenges, since one size does not fit all and nobody pays attention to the instructions.

•  We also should remember that there are both human and non-human communication mechanisms that need to be taken into consideration.

•  We should not wait for the perfect solution for the issues under discussion: individual communities are making some good progress and they should collaborate and coordinate.

Finally, I would like to emphasize that I am interested in the different ways in dealing with granularity across different communities. I think this is an important issue about which I would like to hear some more discussion.

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