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get them and they are very easy to use. Cloud tools are not necessarily interoperable; resources can be siloed in cloud tools just as easily as they can be siloed with conventional technologies. Cloud computing can also introduce a whole new set of confidentiality issues, and is not without some costs as well. With regard to data citation, how do you cite data that are in the cloud? Data may be distributed across computers, and in some cases mirrored or duplicated.

One of the biggest scientific issues related to data citation identified in this breakout session was the culture shift that might be required in many research domains. Currently, citation of data is not widespread in most research communities and is not the accepted thing to do. What is the “tipping point” for data citation? What will push researchers to cite data? One possibility is that a new reward structure for scholarship could be developed. For example, the tipping point for data citations might be when somebody starts counting data set citations. Even if such counting becomes the norm, however, new data citation metrics ought to be developed within institutional structures such as data centers, libraries, universities, and other institutions that provide individual rewards to scientists.

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