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References Alaska Division of Emergency Services. 1980. Greater Anchorage Area Earth- quake Response Study. Anchorage, Alaska: State of Alaska. Alexander, R. H. 1987. Recent developments in digital map data bases and geographic information systems (GIS) as they may apply to earthquake loss estimation. Synopsis of presentation to the Earthquake Loss Estimation Panel, January 8, 1987, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Algermissen, S. T., W. Rinehart, J. Dewey, K. V. Steinbrugge, H. J. Lagorio, H. J. Degenkolb, L. S. Cluff, F. E. McClure, S. Scott, and R. F. Gordon. 1972. A Study of Earthquake Losses in the San Francisco Bay Area: Data and Analysis. Washington, D.C.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Algermissen, S. T., M. Hopper, K. Campbell, W. A. Rinehart, D. Perkins, K. V. Steinbrugge, H. J. Lagorio, D. F. Moran, L. S. Cluff, H. J. Degenkolb, C. M. Duke, G. O. Gates, D. W. Jacobson, R. A. Olson, and C. R. Allen. 1973. A Study of Earthquake Losses in the Los Angeles, California Area. Washington, D.C.: NOAA. Algermissen, S. T. 1978. Development of a Technique for the Rapid Estimation of Earthquake Losses. Open-File Report 78-440. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Algermissen, S. T., and K. V. Steinbrugge. 1984. Seismic hazard and risk assessment: Some case studies. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, vol. 9, no. 30, January 1984. Allen and Hoshall, Jack R. Benjamin and Associates, Inc., and Syston, Inc. 1985. An Assessment of Damage and Casualties for Six Cities in the Central United States Resulting from Earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 78

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79 Anderson, L. R., J. R. Keaton, J. E. Spitzley, and A. C. Allen. 1986. Liq- uefaction Potential Map for Salt Lake County, Utah. Final report to the U.S. Geological Survey by Utah State University, Logan. Contract No. 14-08-0001-19910. Applied Technology Council (ATC). 1985. Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California (ATC-13~. Redwood City, Calif.: ATC. Arnold, C., and M. Durkin. 1983. Hospitals and the San Fernando Earthquake. San Mateo, Calif.: Building Systems Development, Inc. Arnold, C., and R. K. Eisner. 1984. Planning Information for Earthquake Hazard Response and Reduction. San Mateo, Calif.: Building Systems Development, Inc. Blume, J. A., R. E. Scholl, M. R. Somerville, and K. V. Honda. 1978. A Program for Predicting the Structural Effects of a Major Earthquake in the Region of the Palmdale Uplift. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Borcherdt, R. D., ed. 1975. Studies in Seismic Zonation of the San Francisco Bay Area. Professional Paper 941-A. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Brabb, E. 1985. Analyzing and Portraying Geologic, Cartographic and Hydro- logic Information for Land Use Planning and Decisionmaking. Menlo Park, Calif.: USGS. Buck, R. A. 1978. The Puget Sound Earthquake Preparedness Project: Com- municating Earthquake Hazards Reduction Information. Open-File Report 78-933. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Building Seismic Safety Council. 1985. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. Building Seismic Safety Council. 1987. Abatement of Seismic Hazards to Life- lines: Proceedings of a Workshop on Development of an Action Plan. Washington, D.C.: Building Seismic Safety Council. California Division of Mines and Geology. In progress. A study of the impact of a major earthquake on the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in the Los Angeles area. Sacramento: California Division of Mines and Geology. Davis, J. F., J. H. Bennett, G. A. Borchardt, J. E. Kahle, S. J. Rice, and M. A. Silva. 1982a. Earthquake Planning Scenario for a Magnitude 8.3 Earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in Southern California. Special Publication 60. Sacramento: California Division of Mines. Doris, J. F., J. H. Bennett, G. A. Borchardt, J. E. Kahle, S. J. Rice, and M. A. Silva. 1982b. Earthquake Planning Scenario for a Magnitude 8.3 Earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area. Special Publication 61. Sacramento: California Division of Mines. Degenkolb, H. J. 1984. Summary Report of Structural Hazards and Damage Patterns: Pre-Earthquake Planning for Post-Earthquake Rebuilding. San Francisco, Calif.: H. J. Degenkolb Associates. Dobry, R., and L. Alvarez. 1967. Seismic failures of Chilean tailings dams. ASCE Journal of thc Soil Mccharuce and Fo~dations Div~ion 93(SM6~:237-260. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 1980. An Assessment of the Consequences and Preparations for a Catastrophic California Earthquake: Findings and Actions Taken. Prepared from analyses carried out by the National Security Council Ad Hoc Committee on Assessment of the Conse- quences and Preparations for a Major California Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: FEMA.

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80 FEMA. 1985. National Multihazard Surrey Instructions (TR-84~. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. E`uromoto, A. S., W. Lum, N. N. Nielsen, and J. T. Yamamoto. 1980. A Study of Earthquake Losses in the Honolulu Area: Data and Analysis. Honolulu: State of Hawaii Civil Defense Division. Gauchat, U. P., and D. L. Schodek. 1984. Patterns of Housing Type and Density. A Basis For Analyzing Earthquake Resistance. Cambridge, Mass.: Department of Architecture, Harvard University. Geoscience Associates. 1984 and 1985. Phase 1 Report: Hazard Analysm (1984~; Phase 2 and Phase 3 Report: Vulnerability Analysis (1985~. Bernardsville, N.J.: Geoscience Associates. Geoscience Associates. In progress. A study of Clinton County, New York, earthquake losses. Bernardsville, N.J.: Geoscience Associates. Gulliver, R. 1986. Estimation of Homeless Caseload for Disaster Assistance Due to an Earthquake. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. Hansen, R., G. Hansen, E. Condin, and D. Fowler. In progress. The San E`rancisco Earthquake Research Project. San E`rancisco: California Academy of Sciences. Hopper, M. G., C. J. Langer, W. J. Spence, A. M. Rogers, S. T. Algermissen, B. C. Olsen, H. J. Lagorio, and K. V. Steinbrugge. 1975. A Study of Earthquake Losses in the Puget Sound, Washington, Area. Open-File Report 75-375. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Jones, B., D. M. Manson, C. M. Hotchkiss, M. J. Savonis, and K. A. Johnson. 1986. Estimating Building Stocks and Their Characteristics. EPA Materials Distribution Workshop, September B-11, 1986, Hanover, New Hampshire. Keefer, D. K. 1984. Landslides caused by earthquakes. Gcolo~cal Socicly of America Bulletin 95:40~421. Kircher, C. A., and M. W. McCann. 1983. Development of fragility curves for estimation of earthquake-induced damage. Proceedings of Conference XXIII: A Workshop on Continuing Actions to Reduce Potential Losses from Future Earthquakes in Arkansas and Nearby States. Open-File Report 81- 437. Washington, D.C.: USG S. Lindbergh, C. In progress. A study of Charleston area earthquake losses, funded by FEMA, to be produced by The Citadel Military College of South Carolina. Liu, B. C., C. Hsieh, R. Gustafion, O. Nuttli, and R. Gentile. 1981. Earthquake Risk and Damage Functions: Applications to New Madrid. Boulder, Colo.: West~riew Press. Mann, O. C., W. Howe, and F. H. Kellogg. 1974. Regional Earthquake Risk Study. Memphis, Tenn.: Mississippi/Arkansas/Tennessee Council of Gov- ernments (MATCOG) and Memphis Delta Development District (MDDD). McClure, F. E., H. J. Degenkolb, K. V. Steinbrugge, and R. A. Olson. 1979. Evaluating the Seismic Hazard of State Owned Buildings. Sacramento: California Seismic Safety Commission. McGavin, G. 1981. Earthquake Protection of Essential Building Equipment. New York: John Wiley & Sons. McGavin, G. 1986. Earthquake Hazard Reduction for Life Support Equipment in Hospitals. Riverside, Calif.: Ruhnau McGav~in Ruhnau Associates. Molinelli, J., and B. Oxman. In progress. A study of San Juan area losses for the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. Puerto Rico.

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81 National Research Council. 1972. The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964: Oceanography and Coastal Engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council. 1986. Liquefaction of Soils During Earthquakes. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1987. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Oppenheim, I. 1984. Modeling earthquake-induced fire loss. Proceedings of the Eighth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. E1 Cerrito, Calif.: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Reichle, M. S., J. F. Davis, J. E. Kahle, T. G. Atkinson, E. H. Johnson, R. A. Olson, H. J. Lagorio, K. V. Steinbrugge, and L. S. Cluff. In progress. Earthquake planning scenario for a magnitude 6.8 earthquake on the Silver Strand Fault, San Diego-Tijuana area. Sacramento: California Division of Mines and Geology. Reitherman, R. 1985. Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide, 2d ed. Oakland, Calif.: Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project. Reitherman, R. 1986. Nonstructural Earthquake Hazards Mitigation for Hospi- tals. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. Rogers, A. M., S. T. Algermissen, W. W. Hays, D. M. Perkins, D. O. Van Strien, H. C. Hughes, R. C. Hughes, H. J. Lagorio, and K. V. Steinbrugge. 1976. A Study of Earthquake Losses in the Salt Lake City, Utah Area. Open-File Report 76-89. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Scawthorn, C. 1987. Fire Following Earthquake: Estimates of the Conflagration Risk to Insured Property in Greater Los Angeles and San E`rancisco. San E`rancisco, Calif.: Dames and Moore. Scawthorn, C., and W. E. Gates. 1983. Estimation of Earthquake Losses in Los Angeles. San Francisco, Calif.: Dames and Moore. Scawthorn, C., Y. Yamoda, and H. Iemura. 1981. A model for urban post- earthquake fire hazard. DISASTERS, the Intcrna~onal Joumal of Drafter Studies and Practice 5(~2~; London: Foxcombe Publications. Schultz, P. 1983. California Division of Mines and Geology, Environmental Systems Research Institute, MESA-2, San Bernardino County, South- ern California Association of Governments, TEMJAM Corporation, Pilot Project for Earthquake Hazard Assessment. Los Angeles: Southern Cali- fornia Earthquake Preparedness Project. Seed, H. B. 1973. Landslides caused by 50il liquefaction. Pp. 73-119 in The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. Seed, H. B., I. M. Idriss, K. L. Lee, and F. I. Makdisi. 1975. Dynamic analysts of the slide in the lower San Fernando dam during the earthquake of February 9, lg71. ASCE Journal of the Gcotechrucal Engineering Dickson 101(GT9~:889- 911. Steinbrugge, K. V., and H. Lagorio. 1982. Earthquake Vulnerability of Honolulu and Vicinity: Secondary Threats and Credible Surprises. Honolulu: Civil Defense Division, State of Hawaii.

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82 Steinbrugge, K. V., S. T. Algermissen, and H. J. Lagorio. 1984. Determin- ing monetary losses and casualties for use in earthquake mitigation and disaster response planning. Proceedings of the Eighth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. El Cerrito, Calif.: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Steinbrugge, K. V., J. H. Bennett, H. J. Lagorio, J. E. Davis, G. Borchardt, and T. R. Toppozada. In progress. Earthquake planning scenario for a magnitude 7.5 earthquake on the Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay area. Sacramento: California Division of Mines and Geology. Steinbrugge, K. V., S. T. Algermissen, H. J. Lagorio, L. S. Cluff, and H. J. Degenkolb. 1981. Metropolitan San Francisco and Los Angeles Earthquake Loss Studies: 1980 Assessment. Open-File Report 81-113. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Stratta, J. 1987. Manual of Seismic Design. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Thiel, C., and T. Zsutty. 1987. Earthquake Parameters and Damage Statistics. San Francisco, Calif.: Forell/Elsesser Engineers. URS/Blume Engineers. In progress. Boston and Anchorage studies, under way. Washington, D.C.: FEMA. U.S. Geological Survey. In progress. A study of seismic hazard and losses in Utah is under way. Veterans Administration. 1976. Study to Establish Seismic Protection Provisions for Furniture, Equipment, and Supplies for VA Hospitals. Washington, D.C.: Veterans Administration. (Developed by Stone, Marraccini and Patterson.) Veterans Administration. 1981. Seismic Restraint Handbook for Furniture, Equipment, and Supplies. Washington, D.C.: Veterans Administration. (Developed by Reid and Tarics Associates.) Whitman, R. V., N. S. Remmer, and B. Schumacker. 1980. Feasibility of Regu- latory Guidelines for Earthquake Hazards Reduction in Existing Buildings in Northeast. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Wiecsorek, G. F., R. C. Wilson, and E. L. Haup. 1985. Map showing slope sta- bility duirng earthquakes in San Mateo County, California. Miscellaneous investigation map I-1257-E. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Wilson, R. C., and D. K. Keefer. 1985. Predicting areal limits of earthquake- induced land~liding. Pp. 317-345 in Evaluation of Earthquake Hazards in the Los Angeles Region An Earth-Science Perspective, J. I. Ziony, ed. Professional Paper 1360. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Youd, T. L., and D. M. Perkins. 1987. Mapping of liquefaction severity index. ASCE Joun~al of Gcotcchnical Enginecring 113~111~:1374-1392. Youd, T. L., J. C. Tinsley, D. M. Perkins, E. J. King, and R. R. Preston. 1978. Liquefaction potential map of San Fernando Valley, California. Pp. 268-278 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Microzonation for Safety Construction-Research and Applications, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. Ziony, J. I., ed. 1985. Evaluating Earthquake Hazards in the Los Angeles RegionAn Earth-Science Perspective. Professional Paper 1360. Washing- ton, D.C.: USGS.