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25 the potential to minimize delay to non-transit vehicles. Also, built within the existing ROWs in the city of Ottawa, Ontario, using AVL technology to anticipate bus arrival time at inter- is discussed. sections and extend green time can help to clear congestion before bus arrival. Queue Jump #1: Queue Jump at "T" Intersection Without Special Transit Signal Display Chada proposes the following as some of the ideal elements of a priority system: This queue jump was implemented because the left-turning vehicles would delay transit vehicles. Implementation Ability to track bus movements accurately; required signage and driver training (see Figure 21). Ability to measure and record statistics on the bus routes to form transit plans based on statistical analysis. Also consider traffic volume, passenger occupancy, and other Queue Jump #2: Queue Jumps at "T" Intersection related figures; with Transit Priority Signal Indication (TPSI ) Ability to offer a wide variety of priority techniques for different situations; This queue jump was complex because of the short receiv- Ability to minimize delay to non-transit traffic; and ing lane at the far side of the intersection, which requires Ability to estimate cost to both passenger and transit more separation time between when the transit vehicle agency (based on average delay) associated with enact- enters the intersection and when general traffic receives ing any given priority method. the green light (see Figure 22). Chada designed a "Pre-Implementation Checklist" to help local transit agencies find the optimal locations for TSP imple- Queue Jumps #3 and #4: Multiple Queue Jumps at a Four-Legged Intersection mentation within the transportation network. Furthermore, the "Operational and Design Guidelines" provides strategies This example implemented queue jumps at the left-turning for choosing the most appropriate TSP method for any given and straight-through intersection approach. The left turn is area. These guidelines include a series of yes or no questions a regular actuated phase without timing priority. By chang- about TSP characteristics that would require possibly chang- ing the lane designations both queue jumps were imple- ing the current operating characteristics of a transit system. Dependent on the yes or no answer, a recommendation is given mented within the existing ROW (see Figure 23). for how to proceed under the current or proposed condition. Queue Jump #5: Queue Jump with Advance Stop Bar QUEUE JUMP/BYPASS LANES This queue jump was implemented at an intersection leav- The Tail of Seven Queue Jumps, 2004 (27) ing the Ottawa CBD. Approximately 20 buses each hour move straight through the intersection during the peak The effectiveness of TSP is reduced when traffic congestion period, whereas another 160 buses use the dedicated bus increases. In this report, The Tail of Seven Queue Jumps, the lane to turn right. Before implementation, the buses that implementation and operation of seven different queue jumps would move straight through the intersection would have No Queue Jump (Figure 1, page 2) With Transit Queue Jump (Figure 2, page 2) FIGURE 21 Queue jump at "T" intersection without special transit signal display (27).

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26 A: Nobody moves at the B: Bus enters intersection C: General traffic enters side street intersection FIGURE 22 Operation of a queue jump with TPSI (27). to merge into heavy traffic, which would often block Queue Jump #7: Queue Jump with Lane right-turning buses as a result of merging congestion. Control Signals (Heron/Bronson Type) The implementation of this queue jump moved the stop bar back by 25 m, allowing transit vehicles that needed This queue jump was installed to provide a strategic tran- to proceed straight through the intersection to enter the sit stop that would allow for transfers between buses and "restricted space" in front of the vehicular queue (see a grade-separated light rail line; the location would have Figure 24). been unsafe without the queue jump because of the highly utilized right-turn lane. With this queue jump, the transit vehicle movement through the intersection is protected Queue Jump #6: Queue Jump with Queue through the use of special TSP (see Figure 26). Relocation to the Adjacent Lane Although the seven queue jumps were implemented under To better use the ROW at this bottleneck intersection, up differing conditions, they all resulted in a more efficient TSP to the near-side bus stop, the curb side lane was converted system and transit travel time savings with relatively inexpen- from mixed-traffic to an exclusive bus lane. The bus stop sive capital improvement costs. The author notes that because was converted to a bulb out to provide merging for the of the transportation policy in the city of Ottawa that supports bus and lane definition of the right-turning vehicles. This measures that selectively improve transit operations (i.e., pol- change reduced variability and transit travel times along icy and planning objectives are focused on increasing future the corridor (see Figure 25). transit modal share rather than moving vehicles), the imple- No Queue Jumps (Figure 5, page 5) Double Queue Jumps (Figure 6, page 5) FIGURE 23 Multiple queue jumps at a four-legged intersection (27).