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12 CHAPTER THREE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION SURVEYS: STATE OF THE PRACTICE INTRODUCTION TABLE 2 APPLICATIONS AND MODES CONSIDERED IN FREIGHT This chapter describes the state of the practice as determined TRANSPORTATION SURVEYS/DATA from the practitioner surveys. Following this introduction, Intermodal/ the discussion is organized according to the six survey Cross- sections: Application/ Truck/ modal/ Mode Highway Rail Air Marine Multimodal Total 1. Applications of existing data collection are described Infrastructure in Applications. Capacity 43 26 19 19 27 134 Planning Modeling 39 11 7 6 9 72 2. Survey methods and data characteristics are described Cost-benefit in State of the Practice for each of the different types 24 17 7 10 12 70 Analysis of surveys that are included in the study scope. The Land Use 20 6 8 8 9 51 Survey Costs section discusses survey costs for each Planning of the survey types. The Data Availability and Dis- Operations semination section reviews data availability and and/or Safety 32 17 14 10 15 88 Analysis dissemination. Environmen- 25 16 14 12 16 83 tal Impacts 3. Practitioners' freight data requirements are discussed Policy 38 28 24 25 29 144 in Freight Data Requirements. Total 221 121 93 90 117 642 4. Practitioners' use of public and commercial data sources is presented in Use of Existing Data Sets. Several observations may be made regarding this table: 5. Practitioners' use of ITS technologies for surveys The range of applications was broad, with 642 applica- and data collection is described in Use of Intelligent tions cited. The dominant applications were policy (144 Transportation System Technologies. citations) and infrastructure capacity planning (134). Modeling was well down on the list, at 72 citations; oper- 6. Finally, User Assessment of Data presents practitio- ations/safety analysis (88) and environmental impacts ners' assessment of how well current surveys and data (83) each garnered a greater number of citations. All meet their needs. The section also provides a discus- types of applications were cited, with cost-benefit anal- sion of lessons learned. ysis cited almost as frequently as modeling (70 times) and land use planning cited the fewest (51) times. This It is important to note that the information was provided broader range is consistent with the findings of a 2004 in confidence. Accordingly, individual respondents or facili- study of urban freight data needs, which pointed out that ties are identified only generally (e.g., "state DOT"). Appen- the data are needed for infrastructure planning, opera- dix A provides a complete summary of the survey results tions, safety, and environmental issues, in addition to the and is a web-only document. more traditional applications in planning and modeling. That study also grouped data needs into five categories: cargo; road transportation; major freight generators APPLICATIONS and corridors; non-road transportation modes; and eco- nomic, land use, and socioeconomic data (1). Table 2 tabulates the purposes and transportation modes that Trucks/highways were the dominant mode, at 221 respondents consider in their freight transportation surveys citations. However, each of the other modes also was and/or data assembly. Note that respondents were asked to important. Rail was next, at 121 citations. Intermodal, identify all relevant applications and modes. cross-modal, and multi-modal had 117 citations. Next

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13 was air (93), and finally marine (90). Again, the domi- ing by seven respondents (the same number that cited manual nance of trucking and the range of modes are consistent license plate matching), and Global Positioning System (GPS) with the breadth of interest cited in the 2004 study (1). vehicle tracking by five respondents. Commercial vehicle trip Table 2 does not include the following "other" diaries were cited only by four respondents. Other survey applications: types comprised [truck] toll revenues, motor carrier identifi- Understanding the economic importance of trans- cation surveys, and multimodal freight studies. portation facilities and needs Supporting the activities of a freight study or of a freight task force (i.e., a freight council) Performance measures and management (from both user and owner perspectives) Customer satisfaction and marketing among users Provide "voice" to shippers Informing plans and policies, including routing, service coverage areas, bottlenecks, corridor stud- ies, master plans, systems plans, and goods move- ment action plans Assisting in data fusion and trend analysis (also a function of the need to collect all types of data) FIGURE 1 Types of surveys conducted by respondents. Identifying gaps and priorities Toll feasibility analysis Table 3 compares the applications for which the surveys Reporting for the calculation of fees, including were (or were to be) used. Respondents were asked to indicate statewide rail safety fee all applications, and the number of citations--306--indicated Analysis of the movement of hazardous materials that the surveys commonly were used for many applications. Administration of grants and loans By far the most common application was infrastructure or Calibration of a combined land use, economic and facility planning, with 88 of 296 citations (30%). Demand transportation model management and traffic safety applications were next, at 52 Refinement of a strategic investment system plan. and 49 citations respectively. Logistics planning, land use The importance and broad application of data are encap- planning, and air quality management followed, at 34, 26, and sulated in one respondent's comment that "the ways in 24 citations respectively. These applications generally were which decision makers seek freight data and ask ques- well distributed across all survey types. Several other pur- tion is limitless. There are no areas of freight data that poses also were cited, although never exceeding five citations: do not apply. The proprietary nature of freight data and notably, modeling was cited by only five respondents. the myriad of freight transportation projects [dictate] that freight data of all types [must] be captured." Table 4 indicates that many respondents conducted sev- eral types of surveys and data activities jointly. Roadside/ Table 2 describes both data that were collected by the intercept surveys (40 citations), telephone surveys (20), mail- respondent and data that were assembled from other sources. back surveys (18), personal interviews (26), and focus group/ In comparison, only 37 of the 56 respondents (66%) indi- stakeholder surveys (18) most commonly were conducted with cated that they actually administer or fund the data collec- other survey types, notably personal interviews (31), telephone tion: in other words, a significant number of respondents use surveys (26), and focus group/stakeholder surveys (25). data from other sources, and agencies may both collect and assemble data. Table 5 describes the geographic coverage of the surveys. The coverage ranged from facility- and corridor-specific to There was a range of activities among the respondents urban, state, national, and international in scale. Statewide who administered or funded surveys and data collection. The coverage was cited most commonly (43 occurrences), fol- practitioners' survey indicates that at least some agencies sup- lowed by corridor-specific and regional (26 and 25 citations ported more than one type of survey and data activity. As respectively). One additional respondent specified corridor- Figure 1 indicates, roadside/intercept surveys were most fre- specific across this respondent's state. These tendencies gen- quent (25 citations), followed by focus and stakeholder groups erally were prevalent across all survey types. and personal interviews (18 citations each) and almost half conducted personal interviews (17 respondents). Next were Table 6 describes the modes that were covered in the mail-out/mail-back surveys (14), telephone surveys (12), and surveys. Trucks dominated, at 105 responses, followed by combined telephone and mail-out/mail-back surveys (7). rail (34), marine (28), intermodal (27), and air (24). Three Among newer electronic technologies, Internet (web) surveys respondents covered all modes. Again, these tendencies gen- were cited by 12 respondents, electronic license plate match- erally were prevalent across all survey types.

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TABLE 3 14 Survey applications Com- License Com- mercial GPS License plate Roadside/ Mail-out/ bined tele- vehicle Personal Focus/ vehicle plate match intercept mail- phone/ trip diary Internet inter- Stakeholder tracking match elec- Admini- surveys Telephone back mail-back surveys surveys views groups surveys manual tronic strative Other Total Land Use Planning 3 4 1 1 0 1 7 6 1 0 2 0 0 26 Infrastructure/Facility 24 9 10 6 0 3 11 12 2 2 3 1 5 88 Planning Traffic Safety 13 5 4 3 0 3 5 7 2 2 2 1 2 49 Operations Demand Management 17 5 5 2 2 1 7 7 2 0 2 1 1 52 Air Quality 6 3 2 1 1 0 3 4 1 0 0 1 2 24 Management Logistics Planning 8 3 4 3 0 1 6 6 0 0 1 1 1 34 Modeling 1 1 2 Validation of Other 3 1 1 5 Data Routing Analysis 2 2 Economic Impact/Per- 2 2 formance/ Activity Facility Management 1 1 1 3 Communications 1 1 2 Policy/Planning/ 1 1 2 Programming Customer Satisfaction/ Business Development/ 1 1 1 1 1 5 Market Research Outreach/Potential Proj- 1 1 2 4 ects/Perceptions Origin-Destination Data 1 1 1 3 for Freight Variety 1 1 2 Other, Not Specified 1 1 Total 79 34 29 20 4 11 43 43 9 4 10 5 15 306

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TABLE 4 Incidence of joint surveys GPS Roadside/ Com-bined Com-mercial Personal Focus/ vehicle License License intercept Tele- Mail-out/ telephone/ vehicle trip Internet inter- Stakeholder tracking plate match plate match Admini- surveys phone mail-back mail-back diary surveys surveys views groups surveys manual electronic strative Other Total Roadside/Intercept 7 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 1 3 1 1 0 20 Surveys Telephone Surveys 3 5 3 2 1 0 6 2 1 1 0 0 2 26 Mail-out/Mail-back 3 2 2 1 0 1 4 3 0 1 0 0 0 17 Surveys Combined Telephone 2 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 9 Mail-out/Mail-back Commercial Vehicle Trip Diaries (e.g., trip 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 logs) Internet Surveys 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 Personal Interviews 9 4 4 1 0 2 5 3 1 1 0 0 1 31 Focus and Stakeholder 3 3 4 0 0 2 4 3 1 1 2 0 2 25 Groups GPS Vehicle Tracking 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 License Plate 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Match--Manual License Plate 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 Match--Electronic Traffic Counts 0 2 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 11 Administrative Data 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Other (PIERS data) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Total 40 20 18 7 2 6 26 18 6 7 5 1 6 162 15

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TABLE 5 16 Geographic scope of surveyS Commercial Roadside/ Combined vehicle Focus/ GPS vehicle License License intercept Mail-out/ telephone/ trip diary Internet Personal stakeholder tracking plate match plate match Admini- surveys Telephone mail-back mail-back surveys surveys interviews groups surveys manual electronic strative Other Total Facility-specific (bridges and 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 tunnels) Facility-specific 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 (marine ports) Corridor-specific 7 1 3 1 0 1 4 4 1 2 1 0 1 26 Urban Area 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 6 Regional 5 5 4 0 2 0 2 3 0 1 1 0 2 25 Statewide 10 5 4 4 0 3 6 8 0 0 0 2 1 43 Statewide and 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Corridor-specific National 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 International 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 Total 27 12 12 7 2 4 14 15 3 3 3 2 5 109 TABLE 6 Modes surveyed Commercial Roadside/ Combined vehicle GPS vehicle License intercept Tele- Mail-out/ telephone/ trip diary Internet Personal Focus/stake- tracking plate match License plate Admini- surveys phone mail-back mail-back surveys surveys interviews holder groups surveys manual match electronic strative Other Total Truck 25 10 10 4 4 2 12 14 3 7 7 2 5 105 Rail 4 5 1 2 7 11 0 1 3 34 Air 4 4 0 2 7 6 0 1 0 24 Marine 5 5 1 2 8 5 0 1 1 28 Intermodal 2 4 2 3 4 9 0 1 2 27 All Modes 1 0 0 2 3 Shippers/Market 1 1 2 (all modes) Autos and 1 1 Buses Other (not 1 1 specified) Total 25 26 29 9 4 11 39 45 3 7 7 6 14 225

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TABLE 7 organizations surveyed Roadside/ Combined Commercial Focus/ GPS vehicle License License intercept Mail-out/ telephone/ vehicle trip Internet Personal Stakeholder tracking plate match plate match surveys Telephone Mail-back mail-back diary surveys surveys interviews groups surveys manual electronic Administrative Other Total Vehicle 5 6 4 0 1 9 9 2 2 2 2 3 45 Operators Shippers/ 8 7 3 1 2 11 11 0 1 1 1 3 49 Receivers 3PLs 5 3 1 0 1 3 8 0 0 0 1 3 25 Service Vehicles 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 6 Terminals/Ports 6 5 1 0 2 7 10 1 1 0 1 3 37 Distribution 4 3 1 1 1 5 9 0 0 0 1 3 28 Centers Other 0 0 0 Ocean Carriers 1 1 Public 1 1 2 Manufacturing, Warehouse, 2 1 1 4 Retail, Transportation Communit Eco- nomic 1 1 2 Development Planning Agency 2 2 Passenger 1 1 Vehicles Railroads, Motor- 1 1 1 1 4 Carriers, Trailer Freight Forward- 1 1 ers, 4PLs Facility Owners 1 1 Drayage 1 1 Operators Border 1 1 Managers Transportation- 1 1 Managers Military 1 1 Corridor Advo- 1 1 cacy Group Users 1 1 Total 0 33 27 12 4 9 38 54 3 4 4 7 19 214 17