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18 Table 7 describes the types of individuals or organiza- the current trip: specifically, the trip origin and destination, tions that were surveyed. A broad range of interests is appar- goods carried (and their characteristics), and vehicle type ent. Among the 214 citations, shippers/receivers and vehicle (2). Some surveys also ask about the vehicle's route. operators dominated (49 and 45 citations respectively), fol- lowed by terminals/ports (37), distribution centers (28), and These surveys normally involve working with police or third- and fourth-party logistics providers (26). Six service appropriate law enforcement agency to pull over moving operators were cited, as were four public planning and eco- vehicles/drivers and interview them at the roadside about nomic development agencies. their current trip. They also can be conducted at off-road locations such as weigh stations. The surveys usually are rel- atively brief, so as not to disrupt drivers and to avoid causing STATE OF THE PRACTICE unnecessary traffic congestion. Roadside surveys, although most commonly cited by practitioners, are not used as often The literature identifies several different types of surveys as in the past because of cost and the need for other agency and, as discussed here, there are many ways to categorize involvement (e.g., law enforcement) (2). and define these surveys. However, the project scope identi- fied 10 specific survey types to be used for this Synthesis Attributes (see also chapter one, Subject). Twenty-three respondents provided details regarding their Each is described in the following subsections. However, roadside/intercept surveys. Appendix A, a web-only docu- to better reflect the actual practice (i.e., as manifested by the ment, contains the complete responses. Key points to note 12 types described in the practitioners' survey) several mod- are as follows: ifications were made to the aforementioned list: Roadside/intercept surveys were used most commonly Two sets of survey types were combined (roadside for inter-urban goods movement [20 citations; 35 cita- interview and vehicle intercept, and personal interview tions if cross-border (9), international (6), and rural (2) and focus and stakeholder groups). were included]. Thirteen respondents indicated that The discussion of license plate matches was subdivided these surveys were used for urban goods movement. into manual and electronic techniques. A mix of information was collected, with some respon- The discussion of mail-back and telephone surveys dents indicating that only origin-destination data were was brought together but also expanded to allow for collected. Others also collected data on the goods and telephone/mail-back combinations. cargo, although to different extents. The data were Commercial vehicle trip diary surveys (i.e., driver sur- used to corroborate truck counts: however, one respon- veys) were added as a new category. dent noted that they were "basically doing counts" and needed assistance from the state DOT to collect more The Panel's original categories have been reordered to data. link the discussion of similar types together and generally to Surveys were conducted at different locations, includ- provide a logical flow from most common to least common, ing toll plazas, weigh stations, and at the entrance to a traditional to new technologies, quantitative to qualitative, marine port (which served ocean-going vessels). and technical to administrative. One respondent noted that the roadside survey was "dif- ficult and cumbersome, [but] very valuable." Another All told, this analysis resulted in 12 separate survey respondent noted strong cooperation from drivers. types. Each type is discussed in turn here. Drawing from The sample size varied, with the largest numbers of the practitioners' survey, each discussion includes a defini- respondents indicating samples of between 1,000 and tion and a discussion of the key attributes (including "lessons 9,999 vehicles (eight responses), and between 100 learned," frequency, and sample) with selected categories and 999 (nine responses). (The question was posed augmented by case studies where appropriate. A 13th cat- to respondents in terms of categories of ranges.) One egory is provided for "other" survey types that were not oth- respondent in this group noted that this represented a erwise included. 10% sample (part of a statewide study). One respon- dent indicated a sample size of between 10,000 and Roadside/Intercept Surveys 49,000 vehicles, with the surveys conducted at toll plazas (i.e., when the vehicle was stopped); and this Survey Description respondent indicated that a change to electronic toll collection technology would require a new method, Roadside/intercept surveys involve face-to-face interview including the use of mail-back surveys in addition to surveys of vehicle drivers along a road or highway. These roadside interviews. No larger or smaller sample sizes are typically used to capture data about the characteristics of

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19 were identified. Five respondents indicated they were keep the surveys "as organized as possible when it unsure or did not respond. comes to data entry and coding [as there is a] high Each respondent had conducted roadside survey within potential for mistakes/human error." the past 9 years, including three conducted in the year Another respondent noted that "so much more" of this study. The respondent with the oldest survey needed to be done in terms of surveys, given that (2000) planned to conduct another one in 2009. "basically" the only data collected were counts. However, most (10) surveys were conducted infre- Finally, one respondent acknowledged the complex- quently, on a one-time basis or only as needed. Seven ity of freight surveys, by noting that "the devil is in respondents conducted roadside surveys every 5 years, the details." and one conducted surveys every 10 years. Three Respondents also noted several "critical" types of data respondents conducted roadside surveys annually. Five that were missing from the collected survey data: respondents indicated this was the first time the survey Off-hour/night-time trips--that is, the full 24-hour had been conducted. data. In one case, "limited resources" were cited as Respondents reported several successes with the the reason these data were not collected. surveys: Additional days [beyond the day(s) surveyed] Some respondents indicated that they had collected Small sample size (i.e., much activity is not significant amounts of data. captured) The surveys produced unanticipated findings. One Information on final destination, in cross-border respondent gathered "new viewpoints on inter- surveys modal facilities from shippers as well as [on] rail Loaded versus empty movements programs." Another respondent "discovered truck Detailed addresses for origin and destination infor- route information from drivers that differed from mation. These were not collected because of "legal" planning assumptions." considerations. Another respondent reported "average successes" Small trucks and intraregional trips, which were not with the survey; however, "limited funding" captured because the roadside surveys were con- restricted the range of studies to which the data ducted at weigh stations. could be applied. Characteristics of the goods being transported One respondent "successfully sampled approxi- Movements at more "ideal" (i.e., representative) mately 10% of the daily traffic at all locations." times of year Another cited the importance of incentives in Rest area activity over a full 24-hour period achieving a 15% to 20% response rate. Logistics details. Another success reported was using privately oper- Respondents expressed a wide range of comments on ated truck stops as data collection points (i.e., as the quality of the collected data. Some expressed sat- opposed to public facilities such as weigh stations or isfaction with that data: "we got what we were looking by the side of the road). for;" "very useful and representative," "statistically Respondents also reported some problems and significant based on 89 daytime hours," "helped to challenges: focus on specific areas of need." Others were less satis- One respondent, although satisfied with the response fied with the "usefulness, completeness [or] represen- rate, noted that 10% of the data were "lost," and tativeness" of the data: that "interviewers' knowledge of the system and One respondent noted that the data represented only the [trucking] industry, along with critical think- a single day. Another commented that the data were ing [and] reflective listening, [are] critical for valid incomplete, but these were "the best available." A data." Another respondent noted the need to appro- third noted that the quality was adequate but the priate personnel to conduct personal surveys. sample size was too small "to do appropriate statis- Another respondent noted the "huge" challenge in tical analysis." obtaining vehicle registration data for use in deter- "Better survey mechanism[s]" was needed to mining origin-destination patterns. improve quality. Two respondents noted that the collected data were One respondent expressed quality in varying limited to inter-urban flows (although these data degrees: "about 90% [satisfaction] on origin and were "rich"). Accordingly, intraregional and urban destinations; about 8090% on routing; less than goods data were not captured, and corridor cover- 60% on commodities." age was "incomplete." One respondent noted that the "quality of the data One respondent noted that the location of the sur- was useful and [thorough]." The data were captured veys also was important. using personal digital assistants (PDAs), and that One respondent noted that, although a "tremendous each new set of data was downloaded regularly into amount of data" was gathered, there was a need to a database and then reviewed for "potential errors."

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20 Finally, one respondent noted the value of combining reflected a "local context" that must be translated into a survey results into a regional/national truck [origin- "statewide view." The third respondent noted the chal- destination] database. However, "this would require lenge of developing a survey "that is short enough to shared standards on [method] and definitions." get [the] desired information without being too long to decrease participation." Combined Telephone/Mail-Back Surveys Finally, respondents generally expressed satisfaction with their surveys: "includes relevant issues" (i.e., no Survey Description "critical" data were missing), "useful," "[had] a good representative sample." One respondent cited the mer- This method combines the use of telephone and mail-back its of "effective tracking [methods]" to verify survey surveys. Generally, selected respondents are called by tele- responses as an important factor. phone to screen their eligibility for the survey (for example, by ascertaining that they generate freight activity), verify Telephone Interview Surveys the appropriate contact person to whom the survey should be directed, and solicit their participation. Qualified and Survey Description participating respondents are then sent a paper survey form (or the form is delivered to them) to be returned by mail Telephone surveys gather information from a selected (or picked up). In some surveys, respondents have provided respondent through a telephone call in which the inter- their information to the surveyor by telephone in lieu of the viewer poses a series of pre-set questions and records the paper survey form. respondents' answers. The respondent may or may not be notified in advance (e.g., by mail) and may or may not be Attributes pre-screened to ensure eligibility or to set up an appointment for the telephone call in order to allow the respondent time The practitioners' survey yielded seven responses to this cat- to prepare. The interviewer may record responses on paper egory. There was considerable variation in the attributes of for subsequent coding or directly into a computer, which in the seven surveys. Key points to note are the following: turn can validate responses in real time or prompt the inter- viewer to solicit corrections or probe further. Questions can Five of the respondents had conducted combined tele- be quantitative and/or qualitative. phone/mail-back surveys, most recently in 2009 (two respondents) and as far back as 2003. The seventh sur- Attributes vey had not yet been implemented. The survey frequency also varied, from annually or The practitioners' survey yielded 12 responses to this ques- biannually for the customer satisfaction surveys and up tion. Key points were as follows: to every 5 years. Two respondents indicated they were unsure or that there was no established frequency. The telephone surveys were conducted for a variety of The survey purposes varied. Some surveys had more purposes, ranging from freight stakeholder outreach than purpose and application. These included customer surveys that solicited input regarding potential proj- satisfaction surveys (two respondents), a statewide long ects and motor carrier satisfaction surveys (i.e., with range plan, a statewide transportation demand man- services provided by a government agency) to surveys agement plan, facility management, economic impact conducted as part of MPO and statewide freight plans. assessment of road closures, and communications. One respondent noted that the survey had two main The greatest number of these surveys (four) had state- purposes: to gather "qualitative and quantitative infor- wide coverage. Corridor-specific, port-specific and mation from stakeholders" and "to provide state and urban each was cited once. local transportation officials an opportunity to interact The sample size and sampling frame also varied, with freight stakeholders to learn more about freight according to the purpose of the survey. One customer considerations." satisfaction survey sampled 100 to 999 firms; the other Although some surveys focused on the identification sampled 1,000 to 9,999 people. The statewide transpor- of issues, others gathered quantitative and fact-based tation plan sampled 1,000 to 9,999 people. An ad hoc information about the respondent, such as (in this case, survey sampled one to 99 vehicles. from a survey of firms' business operations): location, Three respondents identified specific successes and industry type, facility type, number of trucks by size, lessons learned for combined telephone/mail-back sur- truck type and ownership, and number of employees; veys. One respondent's survey provided an "effective the respondent's trip-making characteristics also were benchmark and tracking of customer service needs and solicited. delivery." Another respondent commented that the sur- Most surveys had been conducted within the past 3 vey yielded "good information"; however, the results years, although two were conducted as early as 2003.

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21 The frequency ranged between once or twice yearly a set of instructions is included with the form. The advan- to every 5 years. However, most respondents indicated tage of this method to the survey sponsor is its relatively low that these surveys were conducted as needed, randomly unit cost compared with some methods (e.g., in-person or or once only. telephone calls); however, there is little ability to screen eli- The surveys were mainly regional or statewide in geo- gibility among respondents. This survey type also has been graphic scope, with five respondents each. One survey used in lieu of roadside surveys in locations where it would was focused on a specific corridor, and another was be unsafe to divert drivers (e.g., high-volume expressways) national in coverage. or where confidentiality concerns prohibited direct inter- Most of the telephone surveys targeted business estab- views: this requires the recording of a license plate num- lishments (8). Five surveys had sample sizes of 100 ber, the registered owner of which is then mailed a survey to 999 firms and three had sample sizes of one to 99 form. From the respondents' perspective, this survey method firms. offers some flexibility and ease in that it does not require an Several lessons were learned, notably: Internet connection and can easily be passed among differ- One respondent noted that the telephone surveys ent respondents within the same organization. On the other were time consuming, with some responses incom- hand, erroneous responses can only be cleaned and corrected plete. There also was difficulty in getting the appro- once the completed survey has been returned, and data must priate person to answer the questions. A second be coded manually or scanned into a computer. Questions respondent attributed a relatively low response rate can be quantitative and/or qualitative. to respondents' inability to answer key questions. A third respondent noted that response rates could be Attributes improved with a shorter survey, with interviews no more than 10 minutes long. The practitioners' survey yielded 12 responses to this ques- Another respondent noted that stakeholders' time tion. Key points were as follows: constraints often dictated their method of response. "The surveys were intended to be in person, but the The mail-out/mail-back surveys were conducted for a stakeholders preferred conducting the interview variety of purposes. These included freight stakeholder over the phone. In some cases, the survey questions outreach surveys, consultation for statewide freight were answered via email interaction due to stake- plans, roadside surveys (as described earlier), and holders' time constraints." in combination with telephone surveys "to increase A fifth respondent noted variation in the responses response." to a statewide freight outreach survey owing to Surveys captured both quantitative data (freight "public/political differences" across the state. origin-destinations), whereas others gathered quali- Critical missing data including routing information tative information: "qualitative system evaluation," and "more survey respondents." input on "potential projects," and "perceptions of Respondents generally were satisfied with the quality transportation." of their data, although with qualifications: Most surveys had been conducted within the past 3 Respondents' willingness to divulge information years, although one was conducted as early as 2003. about themselves varied (i.e., business operations). Almost all the mail-out/mail-back surveys were con- Respondents' ability to provide specific information ducted infrequently, as needed or once only. One also varied. respondent indicated that the survey was conducted In one survey, whose sample was designed to ensure every 5 years "at most." that a wide range of shipper (industry) types was The surveys were mainly regional or statewide in geo- covered, a good "cross sample of data was obtained." graphic scope, with four respondents each. Three focused However, several major goods generators did not on specific corridors and one covered an urban area. respond. The mail-out/mail-back surveys targeted firms and vehicles equally (four citations each), although freight Mail-out/Mail-back Surveys stakeholders ("people") also were sampled. Five sur- veys had sample sizes of 100 to 999 firms or vehicles, Survey Description and four had sample sizes of one to 99 firms, vehicles, or people. A roadside mail-out/mail-back survey had a Mail-out/mail-back surveys gather information by mailing a sample of 10,000 to 49,000 vehicles. form for the respondent to complete and mail back. Often, a One respondent noted that the surveys were successful cover letter explaining the purpose of the survey and a post- in gaining insight into what the "major shipper[s were] age-paid return envelope are included with the form. These thinking." However, others cited a mixed experience: surveys are passive (i.e., self-administered), although assis- One respondent cited a 10% return rate but noted tance may be available by telephone or Internet and typically that some of the responses indicated that the

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22 intended respondents were not made clear, either Almost all the personal interview surveys had been in the cover letter or because of stakeholders' conducted within the past 3 years, with the oldest sur- misunderstanding. vey conducted in 2005. Another respondent noted the need to follow up Survey frequency varied from continuous and "quar- with respondents in order to achieve a good rate of terly," to an as-needed basis, and approximately every return. 5 years. Critical missing data comprised responses from "some The surveys were mainly statewide in geographic of the larger freight generators in the state." scope (six citations) or corridor-specific (four cita- Respondents generally had mixed reactions regarding tions). There were two regional personal interview the quality of their data: surveys and one occurrence each of national and inter- One respondent indicated satisfaction with the sur- national personal interview surveys. vey, which was intended to gather "qualitative feed- Seven surveys had sample sizes of one to 99 individu- back on [the adequacy of and issues with] system als, and three each had sample sizes 100 to 999 and operations [and on] business needs and issues that 1,000 to 9,999 (the latter comprising one continuous the [state] DOT should be aware of." survey and one internal "as-needed" survey). Another respondent indicated that the data were Respondents noted several successes with the surveys. good "but not complete or thorough." One respondent noted that personal interviews were Finally, a third respondent indicated that the data the "most important activity to determine priorities were of "poor quality" and the surveys must be for policy and investment improvements." Another "redone." respondent noted that, although the personal interview surveys were limited, "some information is better than Personal Interview Surveys none." Lessons learned included the following: One respondent noted that the personal interviews Survey Description were "expensive and time consuming." A second respondent noted the need for a "better mechanism" Personal interview surveys gather information from a to gather this type of information. selected respondent through a telephone call or face-to-face Another noted the difficulty of obtaining "in- interview in which the interviewer poses a series of pre-set depth information from shippers, e.g., competitive questions and records the respondents' answers. The respon- issues." dent may or may not be notified in advance (e.g., by mail, A third respondent noted that its internal survey telephone, or by being intercepted), and may or may not be provided "good background information and insight pre-screened to ensure eligibility or to set up an appoint- into complex issues," although the respondent ment for the interview in order to allow the respondent time acknowledged that these [internal] surveys provided to prepare. The interviewer may record responses on paper only "limited perspective of the situation." for subsequent coding or directly into a computer, which in Critical missing data comprised information that was turn can validate responses in real time or prompt the inter- missing "due to proprietary data problems," as well as viewer to solicit corrections or probe further. Questions can a lack of specificity. be quantitative and/or qualitative. Respondents generally were satisfied with the quality of their data. One respondent noted that the information Attributes was used to support quantitative data. Another respon- dent noted that the survey "was useful in identifying The practitioners' survey yielded 13 responses to this ques- relevant issues" but recognized that its small sample tion. Key points were as follows: size was not representative. A third noted that assur- ances of confidentiality precluded any follow-up with Personal interview surveys were conducted for a vari- respondents regarding the issues they raised. A fourth ety of purposes, ranging from continuous surveys and respondent noted that interviews with facility manag- the gathering of information for specific initiatives or ers proved very effective. Finally, a fifth respondent for updates of existing information (e.g., port and air- noted that personal interviews were "good," provided port volumes), to the development of a business plan the appropriate people were available to respond. for the distribution industry and a statewide freight plan. Internet Surveys The surveys gathered qualitative input, which was used for long-range planning and policies, assess customer Survey Description satisfaction, promote business development, profile areas of economic activity, get a "pulse" of the system, Internet surveys are conducted via the World Wide Web. and estimate future needs. Sampled respondents can be recruited via telephone, mail,

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23 or e-mail, then--if they meet eligibility criteria--they are Focus and Stakeholder Group Surveys directed to an Internet link to complete the survey. Par- ticipants also can be invited to participate directly, such as Survey Description through a targeted e-mail list that points to a link (as in the case of the practitioners' survey that was developed for this Focus and stakeholder group surveys are used to solicit Synthesis). Finally, participation can be opened (uncon- qualitative comments and perceptions regarding issues, new trolled) with access provided to any respondent who wishes programs and similar. Focus group surveys often are con- to participate, for example through an advertisement in user ducted face-to-face among small groups. Stakeholder sur- group publications. As with mail-out/mail-back surveys, veys can be conducted face-to-face or by telephone, mail, this method also is passive, although its ability to reach a or Internet. very large number of users can make its unit costs quite low. Internet surveys have been used to solicit qualitative input, Attributes and more recently have been used for quantitative surveys. Fifteen respondents indicated they had conducted focus and Attributes stakeholder group surveys. Key points were as follows: Four respondents indicated they had conducted Internet sur- Focus and stakeholder group surveys were used for a veys. Key points were as follows: variety of purposes: input to freight plans (including study technical advisory committees), freight advisory Internet surveys were used mainly for freight/inter- committees or councils, issue-specific stakeholder modal planning studies. consultation (e.g., for emissions and for a statewide One respondent noted that the survey was used to a truck-only lane initiative), outreach and communica- planning education and information dissemination tions, and highway corridor studies. program. Another respondent indicated that the survey Twelve of the surveys had been conducted within the was not used to gather freight data; the focus was on past 3 years, with others conducted as early as 2002. qualitative information. A third respondent noted that The frequency of the surveys ranged from bimonthly its Internet survey was used to gather quarterly data, to 5 years, with a large number conducted as needed. yielding "valuable local and regional trends." The surveys were mainly statewide in geographic Three of the Internet surveys had been conducted scope (eight citations), with four corridor-specific sur- within the past 2 years, with the fourth conducted in veys and three regional surveys. 2005. Most surveys were conducted among groups of one to 50 Two of the surveys were conducted on an as-needed participants (10 citations). Three were conducted with basis, a third was conducted every 1 to 2 years, and the groups between 50 and 99 individuals, and two more fourth survey was continuous. were conducted with groups up to 499 participants. The surveys were mainly statewide in geographic scope Among all the surveys described in this Synthesis, (three citations), with one corridor-specific survey. these had the most varied audiences: shippers/receiv- Each of the surveys had samples of different size, rang- ers (11 citations), terminals/ports (10), vehicle opera- ing from one to 99 firms to 100,000 or more individu- tors (9), distribution centers (9), third-party logistics als (this last for the continuous survey). providers (8), border managers, transportation manag- Respondents noted several successes with the surveys. ers, service vehicles, rail and motor carriers, facility Respondents use terms such as "valid" and "valuable" users, the military, and a corridor advocacy group. to describe the input. One respondent noted that "peo- Respondents reported both successes and lessons ple prefer to take surveys via Internet" and that it was learned. Successes included: "easy to tabulate the results." Ability to interface with stakeholders, both in One lesson learned was that "some of the recipients do groups and via one-on-one interviews. not have access to a computer." Ability to bring together "business representatives Critical missing data comprised the "volume of com- in the state" for a statewide freight planning study, modities shipped in pounds." from whom the respondent "learned quite a bit about Respondents generally were satisfied with the qual- planning issues that [the agency was] not consider- ity of their data ("excellent," "gives a more accurate ing, particularly to plan beyond state borders." picture of each corridor individually"). However, one One state DOT had "an active and ongoing participa- respondent noted that although the data were useful, tion in the planning processes of all federally-man- they were "not always complete." dated Metropolitan Planning Organizations in [the state], which function as the coordinating commit- tee for transportation and freight issues that bring together city and county governments, State DOTs

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24 and representatives of U.S.DOT (Federal Highway Commercial Vehicle Trip Diary Surveys and Transit Administrations). It is worth specifi- cally noting that [the State DOT] has full and active Survey Description participation in [its] Freight Mobility Plan Technical Advisory Committee for the [state's largest MPO] Commercial vehicle trip diary surveys are used to collect and the Metropolitan Planning Organizations for detailed information about the activities of a single vehicle, [some marine port cities]. The [State DOT] also usually over a single day or a few days. They can provide [has a] close working relationship with the [state data about exact locations served, route, arrival and depar- ports authority, which manages the aforementioned ture times, time taken for delivery/collection/servicing, ports], which functions as the liaison with shippers, type of goods/services, and the like. They typically are self- terminal operators, etc." completed by the driver or by another suitably informed One respondent reported that the results of the employee of the freight operator. These surveys gather infor- stakeholder "forum" became the starting point for a mation the characteristics of the trip (e.g., location of stops, statewide freight advisory committee, which in turn activity at stops, arrival/departure times, itinerary, parking, supported the statewide freight plan. goods transported). The driver or another vehicle occupant Several lessons also were reported: must record the activity at each stop (2). There was a need to better manage stakeholders' expectations. Attributes Some respondents noted that the focus and stake- holder group surveys had limited success, for sev- Two respondents indicated they had conducted commercial eral reasons: difficulty in getting representatives vehicle trip diary surveys. Key points were as follows: of the invited stakeholders to attend the meetings, lack of follow-through, politically charged meet- One trip diary survey was conducted for an MPO's ings; "modest penetration" of the stakeholder truck travel and congestion study, and the other was group, and meetings that were dominated by conducted as part of another MPO's urban goods "major players." One respondent noted that one of movement data collection study as input to a truck trip the stakeholders (the state motor transport asso- model update. ciation) was a "voting member" of the initiative's Both surveys were conducted in the past 2 years. steering committee. The truck travel and congestion study was conducted once Critical missing data were identified as more infor- only; the trip diary survey was conducted every 4 years. mation regarding the supply chain (final destina- Both surveys were regional in geographic scope. tion of the goods being transported), the logistical The truck travel and congestion survey sampled 100 needs of the private sector, and other nontrucking to 999 vehicles; the trip diary survey sampled 1,000 to modes (i.e., rail). One respondent commented that 9,999 vehicles. its focus and stakeholder group surveys should The truck travel and congestion survey was successful: have been supported by other efforts to get more "The survey was designed to gather information [such as] participation. location of facility; type of facility; industry type; number Respondents expressed mixed satisfaction with the of trucks by size; type of trucks; truck ownership; number quality of their surveys. One respondent found the of employees at facility; percent of trips delivering to mul- results "modestly useful," and another noted that tiple locations; percent of trips delivering to single loca- the low turnout and lack of input from the attend- tion; [and] nature/land use of destinations. The survey ees limited the usability of the results. A third noted duration was not more than 15 minutes, with a reasonably the need for the survey to be part of a larger effort. good response rate. These types of surveys have [proven] However, one respondent noted that the information to be very effective for sectors like manufacturing, whole- was "specifically" useful in working with the pri- sale, and warehousing, where trip making characteristics vate sector and in reconciling the varied planning seem to involve a finite set [and number] of destinations horizons of interest among the different partici- or land use types, and also where the starting and ending pants. Another noted that the concerns of stake- point of trips seem to be at these facilities." holders were helpful to the planning process. A The other respondent noted, as a lesson learned, that the third respondent noted the "excellent quality [of the "useful" number of responses was "very low," with "81 surveys, which yielded] great first-hand accounts of the 392 selected companies [returning] 362 diaries." and a good network to follow the logistics paths in However, the collected data were "completely relevant the state." to [the] truck trip model update."

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25 One respondent commented that response rates could is traced--for example, along a section of an expressway, be improved by having a shorter survey, with less than whereby the entrance and exit interchanges can be identi- 10 minutes per interview. fied along with through traffic. Through expansion of the surveys with traffic counts, an origin-destination matrix Global Positioning System Vehicle Tracking Surveys for the facility or corridor can be identified. Manual license plate matches involve the recording of the license plate data Survey Description and, as appropriate, the vehicle type, by the human eye. The data can be recorded on paper or electronically (e.g., into GPS refers to "a federal system of satellites which allow a spreadsheet), or through audio recordings. License plate the user to pinpoint any location using triangulation" (3). surveys have the advantage of being unobtrusive to the trav- The latitude and longitude of a GPS receiver (which may be eling public. located, for example, onboard a vehicle or in a cell phone) can be determined through satellite transmissions. Attributes Attributes Three respondents reported their manual license plate match surveys. Key points were as follows: Five respondents indicated they had conducted GPS surveys. Key points were as follows: Surveys were both old (2003) and recent (2009). The surveys were conducted on an as-needed basis. One survey measured truck performance. Two other Two surveys were corridor-specific, and a third cov- GPS surveys were conducted to track truck border ered a region. crossing times, with one of these surveys also record- One survey recorded a sample size of one to 99 vehi- ing routes. cles, a second survey had a sample size of 100 to 999 The border crossing time/routing survey is ongoing vehicles, and a third survey recorded a sample size of and continuous. The other border crossing study was 1,000 to 9,999 vehicles. conducted in 2009. The truck performance study was underway at the time of the response. License Plate Match Surveys--Electronic The truck performance study covered an urban area; the two border crossing studies were described as cov- Survey Description ering a specific corridor and an international area. The other border crossing study and the truck perfor- These surveys are similar to manual license plate match mance study each recorded samples of 100 to 999 vehi- surveys, except that the data are recorded electronically cles. No sample size was given for the third survey. using video recorders. The recorded data subsequently are The border crossing time/routing survey was "very transcribed manually into spreadsheets for processing. The effective." However, the other border crossing study of use of recording devices can allow for greater accuracy in wait times only provided "adequate to good" data. the records, reduced labor costs, and larger sample sizes. It For the truck performance measurement study--which also provides a permanent record of the observations. Newer was a pilot effort--the respondent noted that it was technologies digitize and translate the data directly, thereby "challenging and time consuming to secure access to eliminating the manual transcribing step. the [GPS providers'] data and [to get the appropriate] contracts in place." However, the respondent also noted Attributes that "companies have been very willing to share data and participate" in the study. Three respondents reported their electronic license plate Respondents found the quality of the collected data to match surveys. Key points were as follows: be "reasonable" and "very good," although one respon- dent noted that information differentiating travel times Surveys were conducted at different times, including by time of day was missing. as far back as 2003. Most surveys were conducted as needed, although one License Plate Match Surveys--Manual was conducted every 5 years. One survey was corridor-specific, a second covered an Survey Description urban area, and a third covered a region. Two surveys recorded sample sizes of 1,000 to 9,999 License plate match surveys involve the recording of all or vehicles. A third survey had a sample size of between part of a vehicle's license plate as it passes through two or 50,000 and 99,999 vehicles. more points along one or many facilities or corridors. In this One respondent noted the benefits as providing "an way, the vehicle's movement through the facility or corridor excellent source for identifying a corridor traffic pro-