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26 file." A second respondent noted that these surveys Other Surveys "[do] not interrupt the traveling public." Respondents also noted some limitations to the data: Five respondents indicated that they conducted "other" types Two respondents noted that the data were samples only, of surveys. These included: with one respondent observing that "plate surveys are taken only 23 times in a week [so] data [are] often A truck toll revenue data survey, which recorded "basic not [a] representative sample of the traveling public." information" about the types of vehicles (i.e., number Another respondent further noted that the data were of axles) that used the respondent's bridges and tun- "good for a marketing survey, but due to time con- nels by time of day and by method of payment. The straints and budget considerations, [the survey] does survey is conducted continuously, and sampled more not provide ... a good representative sample." Finally, than 100,000 firms. one respondent noted that these surveys "cannot com- A trucking company marketing survey, which pletely verify the actual origin and destination of the accounted for 10,000 to 49,999 vehicles. This survey is trip from which [the data were] captured [and] in terms conducted as needed, and was last conducted in 2002. of determining the % of through traffic [the survey data A product survey (in this case, a "virtual container were] not very accurate." yard"), which sampled one to 99 firms in 2009 and is ongoing. The survey comprised "personal meetings Administrative Surveys and phone interviews with key stakeholders on prod- uct need, design, use and pricing is an iterative survey Survey Description process as product is developed and tested." Administrative surveys refer to information-gathering exercises that capture data that are not related specifically SURVEY COSTS to transportation planning--for example, vehicle owner- ship and registration, insurance, shipment value, and the Respondents to the practitioners' survey were asked to indi- like. These data may be collected for financial record- cate the approximate cost range of their "last" survey. Table 8 keeping, legal, security, insurance or other administrative summarizes the results. By far the most common cost range purposes. was less than $0.5 million (76 of 103 responses, or 74%). This was followed by $0.5 to $1.0 million (15 responses), and Attributes the remaining three indicated survey costs were for the $1.0 to $5.0 million range. Two respondents indicated they had conducted administra- tive surveys. Key points were as follows: Table 9 summarizes the allocation of the costs between internal resources and external resources (e.g., consultants The administrative surveys were conducted for a study or equipment). The allocations ranged between 0% (i.e., of drayage activity at a large port and for a freight all costs were external) and 100% (there were no external mobility study. costs), with a 20% internal split being the most common Both surveys were conducted in the past 2 years. category (39 of 99 responses, or 39%). The responses sug- The port drayage survey was conducted once only; gest that most of the costs of data collection are external to the freight mobility survey was conducted every few the agency, although the 100% internal category represented years. almost one-quarter (23%) of the respondents. Both surveys were statewide in geographic scope. One survey sampled one to 99 individuals (who were These findings should be considered with caution for sev- asked to report on tons and value of the goods being eral reasons: shipped); the other sampled 1,000 to 9,999 vehicles. No successes were reported. However, one respondent The responses to both questions were approximations noted that the completeness, representation, and use- only. fulness of the data were all satisfactory. The responses represent categories, within which there One lesson learned was that "[the contracting pro- can be considerable variation. cedure with an external] administrative department There can be variation in costs within a survey cat- is very complicated and time consuming" (i.e., these egory according to the exact nature of the activity. arrangements were required in order to gather the req- Finally, as one respondent commented, the data and uisite information). survey activities were conducted as part of a compre- Critical missing data were commodity flows and data hensive planning study, and it was difficult to separate detailed at the county level. the proportion of costs attributable to surveys and data collection from the overall study costs.

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TABLE 8 Approximate cost of last survey Commercial Roadside/ Combined vehicle Focus/ GPS vehicle License License intercept Mail-out/ telephone/ trip diary Internet Personal stakeholder tracking plate match plate match surveys Telephone mail-back mail-back surveys surveys interviews groups surveys manual electronic Administrative Other Total <$0.5 m 16 9 8 5 1 4 11 11 1 3 2 2 3 76 $0.5$1.0 m 5 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 2 0 1 0 1 15 $1.0$5.0 m 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 $5.0$10.0 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >$10.0 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N/A 1 1 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 Total 23 11 13 6 2 4 13 14 3 3 3 2 6 103 N/A = not available. TABLE 9 PercentAGE of survey costs that are internal Commercial GPS License Roadside/ Combined vehicle Focus/ vehicle plate License intercept Mail-out/ telephone/ trip diary Internet Personal stakeholders tracking match plate match Admini- surveys Telephone mail-back mail-back surveys surveys interviews groups surveys manual electronic strative Other Total 0% internal 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 1 9 20% internal 9 4 3 5 1 2 3 7 0 0 1 1 3 39 40% internal 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 60% internal 3 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 80% internal 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 4 100% internal 3 3 4 1 0 2 3 3 0 1 1 1 1 23 N/A 4 2 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 12 Total 24 11 10 6 2 4 13 15 2 2 3 2 5 99 27