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41 FIGURE 4 Gateway (Terminal) Intercept Truck Survey Form--Portland region. [Source : Task 4--Gate and Establishment Survey Plan Memorandum (8).] FOCUS AND STAKEHOLDER GROUP SURVEYS-- carriers to identify the amount of time late delivery is FREIGHT STUDIES still considered to be "on time" (14). Figure 5 shows the results of this question. A number of organizations conducting freight transportation Ranking or identification of issues and prioritiza- surveys or freight studies collect qualitative information alone, tion of solutions. The 2008 Austin Area Freight or in addition to, quantitative data. Qualitative surveys collect Transportation Study asked respondents to rank information about the "what," the "why" or "why not," and freight transportation challenges according to sever- the "how do we make it better," and they can be targeted to ity on a scale of 1 to 5 (15). specific topics. The surveys may solicit factual information as Bottlenecks and points of congestion in the freight well as attitudes. They are conducted by telephone, on paper, network. in person, or via the Internet. They may be conducted as part of Challenges and opportunities concerning freight focus or stakeholder group surveys. Although the results may transportation. be used in decision-making, they differ from "quantitative" Measure of the level of support for different types of surveys (e.g., origin-destination or commodity flow surveys) proposed initiatives. The 2008 Los Angeles SCAG in that they are not necessarily statistically representative, (Southern California Association of Governments) commonly by design (as evidenced by the practice cited here); Multi-County Goods Movement Action Plan services nor are they intended for modeling or forecasting. study asked respondents to indicate their level of sup- port for a long list of previously identified initiatives. Several recent freight studies have collected a wide variety Rankings ranged from 1 (no support) to 5 (highly sup- of qualitative information about freight transportation. Com- portive). The survey also provided a list of highway mon topics include: locations and asked respondents to identify which locations they think would benefit from a truck lane or Type of business, primary products (for shippers), size, an additional mixed flow lane. Respondents were then location, modes of transportation used. asked to rank their choices (16 ). Figure 6 is an excerpt Establishment operations questions (i.e., who makes from the question concerning potential initiatives. decisions about routing, mode, type of scheduling). A Figure 7 is an excerpt showing the question concern- number of surveys collected information about opera- ing truck lanes. tions; the 2008 Washington Transportation Plan Update Impacts of congestion and delays on business costs and Freight Movement studied the nature and importance profit of on-time delivery. The survey asked shippers and Freight infrastructure investment priorities

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42 FIGURE 5 "On-Time" delivery--Questionnaire tabulations--Washington State. [Source : Washington Transportation Plan Update Freight Movement (14) .] The Arizona Multimodal Freight Analysis Study survey appreciated by stakeholders (17 ). The Kansas DOT Carrier asks a number of questions about the importance of different interview guide included a question asking why some routes factors to a shipper's transportation decisions. The survey are chosen over others and whether routes are preplanned or includes open-ended questions asking respondents to note chosen by the operator (18). Figure 8 shows sample open- what efforts would improve their experiences, or encour- ended questions from the Arizona Multimodal Freight Anal- age them to shift to another mode of transportation. These ysis Study survey. types of surveys attempt to gather anecdotal information about the strengths and weaknesses of the freight transpor- There are three overall strategies for qualitative data tation network and assess what investments would be most gathering:

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43 FIGURE 6 Survey excerpt (Support for Potential Initiatives)--Southern California. [Source : Multi-County Goods Movement Action Plan: Technical Memorandum 2b: Public Outreach--Survey No. 2 Report (16).] Primarily qualitative surveys with little or no quantita- a mix of question types. In addition to primarily qualita- tive data gathered, tive surveys, some surveys were primarily quantitative with Primarily quantitative surveys with a small number of some qualitative questions included. Many surveys included qualitative questions, and an open-ended "comments" space where any feedback could Stakeholder interviews. be provided. Many of the surveys reviewed were primarily qualitative; More specifically than "surveys," many agencies con- in these surveys, origin-destination, routing, and quantity of ducted specific stakeholder consultation interviews. These commodity are not addressed, although some surveys ask interviews tend to be more qualitative in nature and ask a

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44 smaller number of respondents for their input on freight Some agencies reported poor response rates. For the Ari- planning subjects, as discussed earlier. The 2008 Virginia zona Multimodal Freight Analysis Study, the consultant team Statewide Multimodal Freight Study included two types made more than 200 phone calls to shipper/receiver organi- of interviews: scripted interviews with set questions and zations but realized only 12 completed interviews (17 ). unscripted "free-ranging" interviews conducted by person- nel with experience in freight planning. Scripted interviews In addition to surveys of shippers, receivers, carriers, and allowed for easy compilation of results, whereas unscripted other bodies directly involved in freight transportation, two interviews allowed for more detailed exploration of infor- other types of qualitative surveys are conducted: surveys mation that would not have been uncovered by the standard of public agencies and public consultation surveys. For the script (19). For the 2008 Atlanta Regional Freight Mobility Kansas DOT's Statewide Freight Study, three surveys were Plan, a mix of surveys were used, with origin-destination administered: one for shipper/receivers, one for carriers, surveys separate from stakeholder surveys and targeted and one for public agencies. Questions were tailored to each interviews. The stakeholder survey was entirely quantita- group, but all asked about modes of choice and the perfor- tive, whereas targeted interviews were qualitative (20 ). mance of the freight transportation network (18). FIGURE 7 Survey excerpt (Potential Truck Lane Locations)--Southern California. [Source : Multi-County Goods Movement Action Plan: Technical Memorandum 2b: Public Outreach-- Survey No. 2 Report (16).]

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45 FIGURE 8 Sample open-ended questions--Arizona. [Source : Arizona Multimodal Freight Analysis Study, Technical Memorandum #1, Analysis of Arizona's Freight Dependent Industries (17).] Finally, several examples of surveys of "establishments" survey, designed to be administered by the Metropolitan Wash- were found in the United States: however, it is important to dif- ington Council of Governments, solicited the type of quantita- ferentiate the majority, which constituted attitudinal surveys tive information on a firm's activities that can be gathered in an on goods movement issues, from those that collected quanti- establishment survey (although, notably, vehicle surveys were tative information using a statistically representative sample. not included) as well as "anecdotal" input regarding issues. The Establishment Surveys section presents case studies of the The survey was intended to target "a sample subset" of area latter. An example of the former is a 2006 online and mail sur- businesses that ship or receive a substantial amount of goods vey of public and private establishments in Southern California to, from, or within the region; trucking companies (including (21). The survey solicited information regarding goods move- mail/package delivery firms); rail companies; air freight ser- ment issues in the region, but it cannot be considered as either vices; and shipping industry associations or representatives. quantitative or as representing a statistically valid sample (nor However, it also was understood that this survey would not was any intent to this effect claimed). A 2007 establishment represent a "scientifically formulated survey" (22).