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48 The survey solicited information about the December "Form B" covered trips related to business. The form 2007 I-5 closure at Centralia, Washington, and the January solicited information about the employee's trip or "tour," 2008 I-90 closure at Snoqualmie Pass, including: including the vehicle type, origin and destination location of each leg of the day's activities, arrival and departure times, Extent, if any, of "negative" economic impact to the activity conducted at each stop, and value of service pro- respondent's business vided. The list of activities accounted for both commercial Types of response to the closure (cancel, postpone, or services and the movement of goods. The list comprised reroute truck shipments; other) business meeting, sales/marketing visit, provision of ser- Number of truck shipments impacted by the closure vices, break/meal, vehicle service/refueling, pick up of Characteristics of rerouted shipments: material or equipment, drop off of material or equipment, Detour route used return to work, return to home, and other. Respondents were Number of trucks using each detour route asked to check all that applied (28). Figure 10 provides a Increases in journey time sample of this form. Additional direct costs Why this route was selected (available, less severe weather, nearest alternative, safest, other) Source of information about detour routes (highway posted radio channel, company dispatch or contact, truck weigh station, Washington DOT freight elec- tronic mailing list, media, State Patrol, other) Total additional costs incurred by the respondent dur- ing the closure (ranges), broken down by type of cost [overtime hours and drivers' expenses, additional fuel, acquisition of additional equipment, higher rates for expedited or guaranteed services, additional inventory and storage, costs of damaged goods (e.g., perishables), other] Duration of incurrence of additional costs Total additional costs after the closure was reopened, if any Whether any of additional costs were recovered, bro- ken down by type of cost Whether the respondent planned to make any capital or operating investments that year to prevent future busi- ness disruptions owing to potential closures at the same location; and the estimated value of these investments Value of lost sales because of the closure, and associ- ated characteristics (how estimate was derived, per- centage of total annual revenues, duration of impact) Total annual sales (revenue) for the respondent's busi- ness in Washington. It should be noted that the study reports the survey results but does not analyze or interpret them. The report includes the CATI and web surveys. COMMERCIAL TRIP DIARY SURVEYS FIGURE 10 Employee business trip log--Ohio. [Source : 20032004 Ohio Statewide General Establishment Survey, Employee Business Trip Log--Ohio Technical Memorandum (28).] The 20032004 Ohio Statewide General Establishment Sur- Commercial Vehicle Trip Diary--United Kingdom vey included a commercial trip diary survey. The survey was administered to employees of sampled establishments (see The United Kingdom's Continuing Survey of Roads also Establishment Survey--Ohio for a discussion of these Goods Transport (CSRGT) is a long-standing survey of U.K.- establishment surveys). registered heavy goods vehicles that operate on the country's

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49 roads. The ongoing survey has been conducted for several Survey results are tabulated each quarter. The activi- decades in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland. Sam- ties of each sampled vehicle are recorded for 1 week. If the ples are drawn from driver and vehicle registries. The sampled vehicle has been sold or scrapped, then no further details driver or operator of each vehicle completes a log for each trip are recorded on the form. The survey asks for information that is made over the course of one week. Participation, once about the owner's business; the characteristics of the vehicle, selected for the sample, is mandatory. including the number and positioning of axles; and the type of work "normally" carried out by the vehicle. A question The CSRGT is one of several programs that collect infor- on "respondent burden" asks how many minutes it took for mation on goods movement. One result is that inconsisten- the respondent to complete the form. Finally, a 7-day trip cies have been reported in some tabulations; notably, in log is to be completed: for each trip on each day, the origin vehicle activity (vehicle-kilometers traveled), and there was and destination, type of goods carried, weight of goods car- evidence of under-reporting from the CSRGT because of ried at the beginning of the journey, distance traveled empty apparent record-keeping inaccuracies (paper forms are used and loaded (miles), information on "split" delivery/pick-up by the drivers), the need for drivers to distinguish domestic journeys (i.e., tours in which both pick-ups and deliveries are legs of a multicountry trip, apparent difficulty in the ability made), and the frequency of similar journeys, with similar of automatic traffic recorders (which are used to expand the loads, made during the same day. Figures 1214 present the data) to distinguish between some large and small vehicles three pages of the survey form. (the CSRGT includes only heavy vehicles over 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle weight), the exclusion of certain types of vehi- Multiday Urban Vehicle Trip Diary--United Kingdom cles from the CSRGT sample (including cranes, fire engines, and large army vehicles), and a lack of precision in tachno- An example of a multiday vehicle trip diary is provided by graph data, which some respondents were using to record the 2001 Birmingham, Basingstoke, and Norwich, U.K. their mileage (29). Figure 11 provides a sample of the form. survey of freight distributors. That survey included a 3-day vehicle trip diary survey, which was administered to drivers Goods Vehicle Trip Diary--Ireland of the vehicles of the seven surveyed freight distributors. The survey gathered four types of information (35): The National Survey of Transport of Goods by Road is con- ducted by the Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Vehicle activity: date of the delivery round (i.e., tour), Ireland. As with its U.K. counterpart, participation is man- depot departure and return times, odometer readings datory. Approximately 30,000 goods vehicles are sampled at the start and end of the trip, vehicle age and type, per year. A random sample is drawn from official registries and the commodity type on board the vehicle when it of all goods vehicles having an unladen weight of 2 tonnes left the depot. or more. The sample is spread evenly throughout the year. Stop characteristics (for each stop): arrival and depar- Samples are selected weekly, and a questionnaire is mailed ture times, distance traveled between stops, activity type to the registered owner of the vehicle. Three strata are used (delivery, pick-up, both, other), name and address of the for sampling, according to unladen weight (sampling rates stop, quantity of goods delivered or picked up, where are shown in parentheses): 25 tonnes (15% sample), 510 the vehicle was parked, time taken for each delivery or tonnes (50%), and 10 tonnes and over (90%). The strata sam- pick-up, and any problems experienced en route. pling rates remain constant for each weekly draw. Because Vehicle characteristics: age, make and type, exter- the rates have remained constant over several years, and nal size, internal load space (volume), gross vehicle because the fleet size has increased over time, the weekly weight, maximum payload, fuel type, and vehicle fuel sample size increases gradually (31). consumption rate. FIGURE 11 Commercial vehicle trip diary (extract)--United Kingdom. [Source : Department for Transport (30).]