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50 FIGURE 12 Goods vehicle trip diary, first page--Ireland. [Source : National Survey of Transport of Goods by Roads (32).] Vehicle utilization (over the 3-day period): time idle classification counts. The surveys comprised telephone and (empty) at the depot, time vehicle was out on pick-ups in-person interviews of the proprietors of key freight-gener- or deliveries, and time vehicle was loading/unloading ating facilities in the region, such as warehouses and manu- or waiting at the depot, or during a driver rest period. facturing facilities. The surveys gathered data on the facility type and its characteristics: number of employees, hours of The large number of stops made by some firms required operation, facility size, number of loading/unloading bays, the assistance of the researchers to accompany the drivers whether the facility supported cross-docking capabilities, and fill out the survey forms themselves. type (commodity) of products handled, volume of inbound/ outbound shipments, distribution of the shipments by time of day and by season, the most common origins and destina- ESTABLISHMENT SURVEYS tions of shipments, average payload weight, empty truck trip fractions, and primary highway access routes to and from Portland Freight Data Collection Program--Port of the facility (and whether drivers were given routing instruc- Portland et al. tions) (8, 36 ). The in-person survey is illustrated in Figure 15. Note that the questions solicit information regarding The Portland freight data program conducted establishment "typical" freight activity. Respondents also were given the surveys in addition to roadside intercept surveys and vehicle opportunity to comment on selected issues.

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51 FIGURE 13 Goods vehicle trip diary, second page--Ireland. [Source : National Survey of Transport of Goods by Roads (33).] Establishment Survey--Ohio advance letter (which provided more information) was sent by facsimile or by e-mail. A survey date was assigned. The sur- An establishment survey was conducted as part of the Ohio vey forms, including instructions, then were sent by courier. statewide freight data collection initiative in 2003. This sur- "Form A" verified information regarding the establishment's vey covered both goods movement and commercial activ- characteristics that had been collected during the recruitment. ity. The survey complemented existing data on freight flows The survey also collected information regarding the types of from the TRANSEARCH commercial database and from goods shipped and/or services provided off-site, fleet vehicle the U.S. Commodity Flow Survey: to this end, it focused information, and the composition of the company's labor on the types of establishments that are not generally cov- force (number of employees by industry and occupation clas- ered in these other sources. (See Commodity Flow Survey sification). "Form B" was an employee business trip log (see section later in this chapter.) Of an initial sample of 9,231 Employee Business Trip Log--Ohio earlier in this chapter) establishments, 593 returned completed survey forms: these (28). "Form C" gathered data about outgoing goods shipments represented a response rate of 13% of the sample and a 33% on the assigned survey date. The data included type of goods response rate of the 1,781 establishments that actually were shipped; the quantity shipped; shipment destination; whether recruited for the survey. a courier, shipper, or common carrier was used (and the firm's identity); type of vehicle used, company vehicle used (if any); The study comprised three separate surveys. Initial activity/trip purpose; and vehicle occupancy. Figure 16 pro- recruitment was conducted by telephone, following which an vides a sample of Form C.

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52 FIGURE 14 Goods vehicle trip diary, third page--Ireland. [Source : National Survey of Transport of Goods by Roads (34).] Establishment Survey--Georgia tinations of the trucks, pick-up and drop-off activity at the warehouse, and seasonal and temporal variations in truck The Georgia Statewide Truck Lanes Needs Identification activity (4). Figure 17 presents the survey form. Study (described in Statewide Truck Lanes Needs Identifi- cation Study--Georgia) conducted surveys at seven Savan- Establishment Surveys--Edmonton/Calgary, Canada nah-area warehouses. The surveys were used to confirm that these facilities operated primarily as intermediate freight The cities of Edmonton and Calgary, Canada, collaborated on destinations between the Port of Savannah and points fur- the development of an urban goods model and on the under- ther inland, and secondarily as distribution centers for goods lying data collection. The two cities, which are 180 miles that are consumed locally. A mix of public and private ware- apart, are the largest cities in the Province of Alberta and houses participated in the survey. Together, they accounted have approximately the same population (900,000950,000 for approximately 200,000 trucks moving in and out of their at the time of the surveys described here). The surveys were facilities annually. The focus was on the movement of con- used in the development of micro-simulation goods and ser- tainers (although allowances were made for other trucks); vices models for the two cities (37 ). and the data were differentiated according to whether or not the containers were loaded or were empty. The warehouse The surveys were applied in Calgary in 20002001 and in operators provided information on their hours of operation, Edmonton in 20012002. Each combined an establishment the numbers of trucks using the facility, the origins and des- survey with an origin-destination survey of truck drivers.

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53 FIGURE 15 Establishment survey--Portland. [Source : Task 4--Gate and Establishment Survey Plan Memorandum (8).] The establishment survey captured the activities of a signifi- were deemed to be eligible. Of the contacted establish- cant sample of all business establishments in the respective ments, 13,792 were determined to be eligible, and of these region. Drivers of commercial vehicles leaving the estab- 4,324 agreed to participate in the survey. The survey was lishment then were surveyed regarding the specifics of their expanded according to three independent variables: number goods movement over one weekday. The surveys covered all of employees, industry category, and geographic location, establishments involved in the shipment of both goods and using the total number of employees within each variable services, including transportation depots. These urban sur- to determine the individual establishment expansion factors. veys were complemented by a roadside survey of trucks at The resultant average expansion factor for all establishments an external cordon surrounding each city, to capture inter- was 2.36 (38). urban goods movement to, from, and through each city. The Calgary experience, which surveyed 3,411 establish- The surveys attempted to sample all types of businesses. ments, is instructive insofar as developing the establishment In the Edmonton survey, 27,478 business establishments sample is concerned. Difficulties with finding a workable were contacted to ascertain their eligibility for participating sample database caused delays in the process and required in the establishment survey. Information also was collected that the sample be verified before the actual survey could regarding the number of employees, location, and industry begin. Samples ultimately were drawn from the Provincial category of the establishment. Establishments that produced Treasury ministry's registry of businesses and from the city either a product or a service that required transportation of Calgary's City Business Tax database. For the city of Cal-

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54 gary, a sample of 49,354 companies, approximately 3.4% of delivered to the establishment. Even with the availability of the sample could not be reached because of incorrect tele- complete or partial support (i.e., the interviewing contrac- phone numbers (for initial contact and recruitment), the tor was available to complete all or part of the survey for provision only of a facsimile number, or that the company the respondent), 92% of the surveys required amendments, no longer was in business. Another 25.1% did not qualify including correction of addresses and compilation of the because they did not ship or used only the postal service or required information from original sources. Respondents personal couriers, and a further 7.2% were duplicates. Of had operational differences that impacted the establishment the remainder, 2.4% declined to participate. In total, 3,791 and driver surveys: in particular, the inability to record mon- establishments, or 7.7% of the initial sample, pre-qualified. etary values of the shipments because product owners did Of these, 3,150 or 6.4% were recruited, and 3,107 establish- not share this information with them (and the goods were ments ultimately provided usable data. Another 304 sur- insured by the producing company), value information was veys were completed in the surrounding region, for a total kept elsewhere (at a head office), or details could not be bro- of 3,411 surveyed establishments (39). As the city of Cal- ken out. More reporting units of measure than were expected gary's experience indicates, the coverage and representation also were received, and had to be reconciled. Consistency of the establishment survey depends on the availability of for service vehicle reporting was difficult depending, for appropriate databases; much of the available data were erro- example, on whether or not the service vehicle was parked neous, duplicates, or otherwise unusable. Moreover, the use at home (i.e., in which case, the first trip of the day may be of telephone recruitment ensured that sampling quotas were that from home to the service site, or to work to pick up the met and that, once recruited, respondents' participation was service vehicle). Once an establishment had been recruited maximized. by telephone, a face-to-face visit followed, in order to obtain management buy-in and personalize the project (39). FIGURE 16 Outgoing goods shipment survey--Ohio. [Source : 20032004 Ohio Statewide General Establishment Survey, Technical Memorandum (28).] FIGURE 17 Establishment survey of warehouses--Georgia. The challenges of reporting were noted in the Calgary [Source : Statewide Truck Lanes Needs Identification Study, survey. Following the telephone recruitment, packages were Technical Memorandum 1: Data Collection (4).]