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65 5. Research on ways to build agency staff capabilities movement. In addition, there is a need to address a by educating and training analysts, and on ways to lack of a "common understanding or agreement about disseminate the practical aspects of the conduct of what constitutes an urban [in this case] freight trans- surveys, from survey design, the development of port indicator" (57 ). appropriate sampling frames, and ensuring sufficient samples to provide necessary detail, to recruitment 4. A 2008 BESTUF report further identified the need to techniques, staff training, and specific details on sur- develop common definitions and terms (58). vey costs. Detailed documentation of all aspects of the survey process and its dissemination would be help- ful in improving the overall capabilities and resource OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RESEARCH pool among public agencies. Although not identified specifically by practitioners or in the literature, several other recommendations can be drawn NEEDS AND GAPS IDENTIFIED IN THE LITERATURE from the findings: AND RESULTANT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RESEARCH 1. Development of a taxonomy of freight survey types, common definitions, and a common set of indicators Researchers have identified several gaps: of performance. These fundamental categorizations will help guide any subsequent detailing and analy- A 2008 United Kingdom study noted the need to "com- sis of surveys. Throughout the literature and among pare and validate" alternate techniques that could be used to practitioners, there is a lack of clarity regarding the gather the same type of information, in order to "determine differences between surveys and the techniques that the accuracy of each, and to investigate how both can poten- are used to conduct them (e.g., "roadside/intercepts" tially be enhanced to make up for any shortcomings they are a type of survey; "telephone" is a technique used have" (55). to conduct a survey). A useful taxonomy is provided by a 2008 United Kingdom study that identified 11 1. The Portland, Oregon, and Peel Region, Canada, compar- distinct types of quantitative and qualitative surveys isons of techniques are examples of this type of research and then discussed different techniques for conduct- (see Comparison of Techniques in chapter four). ing them (57 ). 2. The surveys described herein are multifaceted and 2. Development of methods to improve the precision and generally are well established. However, they do not level of detail of existing surveys, notably through the profile the characteristics of the complete supply chain integration of ITS technologies into the surveys. involving the movement of a good from its true ori- gin to its ultimate destination. Rather, individual seg- 3. Further comparison and assessment of all aspects of ments of the chain tend to be captured. A 2007 review surveys, ranging from sample definition and selection of freight data sources in Washington State identified to survey techniques and post-survey analysis. This the need to better understand the global supply chain comparison could be done through a series of pilot and its manifestation in the movement of freight to, or site-specific tests, as exemplified by the research from, and within the state, as well as the workings described in the preceding chapter. of the distribution of goods produced in the state to domestic and international markets, and of the dis- 4. Development of data collection and survey methods tribution of products to the consumer (56 ). This also to detail the dynamics of the supply chain. Although implies the development of a better understanding of this synthesis has touched on these, specific attention cross-border and international commodity flows. should be given to this emerging and somewhat diffi- cult-to-define subject. 3. A 2006 BESTUFS report identified the need to estab- lish indicators that assess the performance of goods