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75 GLOSSARY This glossary has been compiled from references 25 (Ko et tion with orbiting satellites to track the whereabouts al. 2009) and 55 (Allen et al. 2008). of vehicles. These systems are increasingly used by trucking companies to obtain real-time information on · Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR): A recorder that the location of assets. captures directional speeds or records speeds as well · Hazardous material (HAZMAT): A substance or as conducts rudimentary traffic counts. Commonly material that the Department of Transportation has referred to as tubes. determined to be capable of posing a risk to health, · Automated vehicle classification devices: Monitoring safety, and property when stored or transported in devices used to establish the mix of vehicles in a traf- commerce. fic stream. These devices can vary substantially: some · Intermodal terminal: A location where links between count axels, some use the "magnetic profile" over the different transportation modes and networks connect. loops, and some use the shape the vehicle projects Using more than one mode of transportation in moving through video. persons and goods. · Carrier: A firm that transports goods or people via · Land use data: Information about the composition land, sea, or air. of land uses and plans for future land uses. Such data · Commercial vehicle movements: The movement of may include information about zoning or the location vehicles involved in the transportation of goods or of infrastructure related to goods movement such as freight or the provision of services, such as appliance freight generators, industrial sites, and retail centers. repair. · Logistics: All activities involved in the management of · Commodity: An item that is traded in commerce. The product movement; delivering the right product from term usually implies an undifferentiated product com- the right origin to the right destination, with the right peting primarily on price and availability. There are quality and quantity, at the right schedule and price. several standard commodity classification systems in · North American Industrial Classification System use in North America. (NAICS): A multi-tiered industrial classification · Commodity flow: A quantity of a specified commod- system. Major industry groups are assigned a single ity moving between a specified origin and destination numerical digit. Within each major group are more dis- region. Commodity quantities are usually given in aggregate industry categories (2-digit, 3-digit, 4-digit, terms of weight (tons) or value, and origin-destination etc.). regions are typically specified in terms of states/prov- · Payload: The cargo carried by a truck. inces, counties, or cities. · Private trucking fleet: A fleet of trucks owned by the · Commodity Flow Survey (CFS): A survey con- shipper or receiver of goods. Trucks in private fleets ducted in the United States every 5 years as part of are not for hire by other users. the Economic Census. The survey collects informa- · Port Authorities: State or local governments that tion about outbound goods shipments. Certain limi- own, operate, or otherwise provide wharf, dock, and tations in shipment coverage exist and are explained other terminal investments at ports. in literature provided by the Bureau of Transportation · Public and commercial data sources: Data sets that Statistics and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. are purchased or acquired from an outside source. · Drayage: The movement of goods, generally by truck, · Roadside survey: A survey conducted by intercepting from the primary shipper (or to the receiver) from the vehicles at a roadside location for the purpose of con- main shipment mode (e.g., goods trucked from a ship- ducting a data collection interview. per to a port for export). Drayage moves are generally · Screenlines: Artificial lines drawn across a set of facil- short-haul moves made by specialized carriers. ities that generally serve the same origin and destina- · Economic data: Data or statistics related to popula- tion subareas within a metropolitan area. Screenlines tion, employment, operation and fuel costs, consump- are used to validate travel demand models by compar- tion information, and industry statistics. ing the predicted traffic volumes at the screenline with · Freight forwarder: A person who acts as an agent on those obtained from traffic counts. behalf of a shipper. A freight forwarder frequently con- · Shipper: The party that tenders goods for solidates shipments from several shippers and coordi- transportation. nates booking reservations. · Third-party logistics (3PL) providers: Specialists in · Global Positioning System (GPS): A satellite-based logistics who may provide a variety of transportation, system of tracking the location of a transmitter/ warehousing, and logistics-related services to buyers receiver. The system uses microwave communica-
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76 or sellers. These tasks were previously performed in- · Transportation network data: Data about the supply house by the customer. and limitations of the greater transportation network. · Ton-mile: A measure of output for freight transporta- Data may include information about defined truck tion; reflects weight of shipment and the distance it is routes, HAZMAT mapping, truck size, height, and hauled; a multiplication of tons hauled by the distance weight limitations, seasonal closures for waterways, traveled. short and long haul rail line locations, or other restric- · Tours: Sets of linked trips beginning and ending at tions on goods movement. home base. · Vehicle classification counts: Traffic counts that clas- · Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ): A location used in sify the vehicles being counted. Classification counts urban travel demand models to determine where trips distinguish trucks from automobiles and may distin- originate and terminate. guish trucks based on axle configuration, truck con- · Travel diaries: A survey instrument used to collect figuration, or body type. Vehicle classification counts information on individual trips. Travel diaries gener- can be taken manually (visual observation) or with ally ask the user to record information on each trip, machines. including starting and ending location, time of trips, distance of trips, and land use at trip ends.