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NCHRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 410 Freight Transportation Surveys Sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration A Synthesis of Highway Practice

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Vice Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC TARA O'TOOLE, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP Synthesis 410 Freight Transportation Surveys A Synthesis of Highway Practice Consultants DAVID KRIGER MATTHEW McCUMBER ALLISON CLAVELLE BECKY GAN and TAVIA CHOW HDR/iTRANS Consulting, Inc. Ottawa, ON, Canada S ubscriber C ategories Highways Motor Carriers Planning and Forecasting Railroads Terminals and Facilities Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 410 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach Project 20-05 (Topic 40-09) to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and ISSN 0547-5570 engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best ISBN 978-0-309-14318-9 be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with Library of Congress Control No. 2010936034 their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION American Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi- Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their manuscripts cials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of used herein. the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- Transportation. poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the The Transportation Research Board of the National Research Coun- material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMSCA, cil was requested by the Association to administer the research pro- FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular gram because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any development or authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission possesses avenues of communication and cooperation with federal, from CRP. state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objec- tivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists NOTICE in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Co-operative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transpor- by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments tation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national impor- Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State tance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill of the National Research Council. these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or The needs for highway research are many, and the National Coop- implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, erative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical com- to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern mittee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway research programs. Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- nical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- 500 Fifth Street, NW emies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Adminis- Washington, DC 20001 tration, the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials, and the individual states participating in the National and can be ordered through the Internet at: Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. 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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative CHAIR Research Programs CATHERINE NELSON, NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer Oregon DOT EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF KATHLEEN S. AMES, STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Michael Baker, Jr. Inc. Special Programs STUART D. ANDERSON, JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Texas A&M University Synthesis Studies CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer PB Americas, Inc. GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer LISA FREESE, DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer Scott County (MN) Public Works Division DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant MALCOLM T. KERLEY, DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate Virginia DOT RICHARD D. LAND, California DOT TOPIC PANEL JAMES W. MARCH, MATTHEW FOWLER, Georgia Department of Transportation Columbia, MD ELAINE KING, Transportation Research Board TODD SAX, California Air Resources Board JOHN M. MASON, JR., FRANK SOUTHWORTH, ORNL/Georgia Institute of Auburn University Technology ANANTH PRASAD, KIMBERLY SPENCE, Virginia Department of Transportation Florida DOT NANDA SRINIVASAN, Transportation Research Board ROBERT L. SACK, JANIE TEMPLE, Texas Department of Transportation New York State DOT GEORGE C. XU, Washington State Department of FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON, Transportation Federal Highway Administration RAJ S. GHAMAN, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) LARRY VELASQUEZ, MICHAEL SPRUNG, Federal Highway Administration QUALCON, Inc. (Liaison) FHWA LIAISON JACK JERNIGAN TRB LIAISON STEPHEN F. MAHER

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FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway commu- nity, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials--through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program--authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Proj- ect 20-5, "Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems," searches out and syn- thesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE Information on the movement of freight and its characteristics is essential to promoting By Jon M. Williams economic efficiency and development. This information can take many forms, from clas- sified traffic counts and travel time studies to comprehensive commodity flow and origin- Program Director destination surveys. Twelve different types of surveys are profiled in this report. Practices Transportation for each type are described and some are illustrated by case studies. Cross-cutting issues Research Board are presented--survey costs, the use of Intelligent Transportation System technologies, comparison of survey types, and the Commodity Flow Survey. Information was gathered through literature review and a survey of state departments of transportation and selected metropolitan planning organizations, marine and airport authorities, academics, and commercial freight data purveyors. David Kriger, Matthew McCumber, Allison Clavelle, Becky Gan, and Tavia Chow of HDR| iTRANS, Ottawa, ON, Canada, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 7 CHAPTER one INTRODUCTION Context, 7 Overview, 7 Organization, 8 Audiences, 8 9 CHAPTER two METHOD FOR SURVEY AND LITERATURE REVIEW Overview of Method, 9 Survey of Practice, 9 Sources for Literature Review and Data, 11 12 CHAPTER THREE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION SURVEYS: STATE OF THE PRACTICE Introduction, 12 Applications, 12 State of the Practice, 18 Survey Costs, 26 Data Availability and Dissemination, 28 Freight Data Requirements, 28 Use of Existing Data Sets, 30 Use of Intelligent Transportation System Technologies, 32 User Assessment of Data, 34 38 CHAPTER four CASE STUDIES Introduction, 38 Roadside/Intercept Surveys, 38 Roadside/Intercept Surveys--Specific Topics, 39 Focus and Stakeholder Group Surveys--Freight Studies, 41 Focus and Stakeholder Group Surveys--Specific Topics, 46 Commercial Trip Diary Surveys, 48 Establishment Surveys, 50 Commodity Flow Surveys, 55 Intelligent Transportation Systems Technologies, 56 Comparison of Techniques, 58 62 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of Findings, 62 Needs and Gaps Identified by Practitioners and Resultant Recommendations for Research, 63 Needs and Gaps Identified in the Literature and Resultant Recommendations for Research, 65 Other Recommendations for Research, 65 66 REFERENCES 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 GLOSSARY

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77 APPENDIX A Survey Response (tabulation) (web-only document) 172 APPENDIX B Survey Respondents APPENDIX A OF THIS REPORT CAN BE FOUND AT WWW.TRB.ORG, SEARCH ON "NCHRP SYNTHESIS 410."