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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 88 Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration A Synthesis of Transit Practice

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS ANN AUGUST ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTE Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Authority Vice Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson CHAIR OFFICERS Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS James Wilding JOHN BARTOSIEWICZ MEMBERS CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of McDonald Transit Associates MICHAEL BLAYLOCK J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY VICE CHAIR Jacksonville Transportation Authority DEBORAH H. BUTLER,Governments, Executive ViceArlington President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern LINDA J. BOHLINGER Corporation, E Norfolk, XECUTIVE VA DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board HNTB Corp. Jeff Hamiel WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, RAUL BRAVO MinneapolisSt. Paul Los Angeles MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission Raul V. Bravo & Associates EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh GREGORY COOK JAMES M. CRITES, ExecutiveJ. Barry Vice Barker, Executive President Director, Transit of Operations, Authority Dallas-Fort Worth ofInternational River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Veolia Transportation Airport, TX Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg TERRY GARCIA CREWS StarTran James Crites PAULA J. HAMMOND, Larry L. Brown, Secretary, Sr., Executive Washington Director, State DOT, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Olympia ADIB K. KANAFANI,Deborah Cahill Professor H. of Civil Butler, Engineering, Executive Vice University President, of California, Planning, Berkeley and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, ANGELA IANNUZZIELLODallasFort Worth International Airport ENTRA ConsultantsRichard de Neufville SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Norfolk, VA MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, JOHN INGLISH Massachusetts Institute of Technology Utah Transit Authority Arlington William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole SHERRY LITTLE Unison Consulting TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice David S. Ekern, President, Commissioner, Regional Virginia DOT, General Manager, Richmond Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Spartan Solutions, LLC John K. Duval Mandeville, LA Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of JONATHAN H. MCDONALD Beverly Municipal Airport STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Virginia, Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Charlottesville HNTB Corporation HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, GARY W. MCNEIL Freidheim Consulting BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Minneapolis, MN GO Transit Atlanta, GA Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman MICHAEL P. MELANIPHY DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Jacksonville Aviation Authority RandellMercator H. Iwasaki, Director, Advisors LLC, California DOT, Philadelphia, PASacramento Motor Coach Industries BRADFORD MILLER Tom Jensen LAWRENCE A. SELZER, Susan Martinovich, President and CEO, The Conservation Director, Nevada DOT, Fund, Arlington, Carson City VA National Safe Skies Alliance Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Debra Distinguished L. Miller, Professor Secretary, of Kansas Civil DOT,Engineering, Topeka Purdue University, FRANK OTERO Catherine M. Lang West Lafayette, IN Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Highway Administration, Baltimore PACO Technologies Federal Aviation Administration KEITH PARKER Gina Marie Lindsey Director, Institute of Pete K. Rahn, Director, Transportation Missouri Studies; and InterimDOT, Jefferson Director, City Energy Efficiency Center, VIA Metropolitan Transit Los Angeles World Airports Sandra University of California, DavisRosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson PETER ROGOFF KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director,Tracy L.Michigan Rosser, Vice DOT, Lansing Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA President, FTA Carolyn Motz JEFFREY ROSENBERG Hagerstown Regional Airport DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, RosaPresident and CEO, Con-Way, Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneralInc., Ann Arbor,Transroute Manager, MI International Canada Services, Inc., Richard C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Amalgamated Transit Union Tucker Texas, Austin Pitt Meadows, BC RICHARD SARLES Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO MICHAEL SCANLON EX OFFICIO MEMBERS San Mateo County Transit District C. Michael Research PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell and Innovative Centennial Technology Chair in Engineering, Administration, U.S.DOT University of Texas, Austi JAMES STEM Sabrina Johnson J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Linda S. Watson, CEO, Administrator, LYNXCentral Federal Florida Regional Aviation Administration, U.S.DOTTransportation Authority, Orlando U.S. United Transportation Environmental Protection Union Agency REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, GARY THOMAS Richard Marchi Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Smyrna, GA Dallas Area Rapid Transit Airports Council International--North ANNE S. America FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT FRANK TOBEY Laura McKee JOHN T. GRAY, Senior EX OFFICIO Vice President,MEMBERS Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, First Transit Air Transport Association of America MATTHEW O. TUCKER Washington, DC Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski JOHN C. HORSLEY, Peter Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and North County Transit District National Association of State Aviation H. Appel, Officials Officials, Washington, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT PAM WARD Transportation DC Melissa Sabatine Ottumwa Transit Authority J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOTFederal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport ALICE WIGGINS-TOLBERT Executives VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Rebecca M. Brewster, Administrator, Federal President Highwayand COO, American Administration, Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, G U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Parsons Brinckerhoff WILLIAM W. MILLAR, George Bugliarello, President, American President Emeritus and Association, Public Transportation University Professor, Polytechnic Washington, DC Institute of New York Transportation Research Board TARA O'TOOLE, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Security, Washington, DC E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT James WILLIAM W. MILLAR SECRETARY ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department APTA Cynthia of Homeland Security, Douglass, Washington, DC Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. Christopher W. Jenks TRB CYNTHIA L. Administration, QUARTERMAN, U.S.DOT Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Transportation Research Board Administration, U.S.DOT JOHN C. HORSLEY LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the AASHTO PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Interior, Washington, DC Administration, U.S.DOT VICTOR MENDEZ DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, Edward R. National Hamberger, Highway President Traffic and CEO, Safety Administration, Association U.S.DOT of American Railroads, Washington, DC FHWA JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, John C. Horsley, Assistant Executive Secretary Director, American for Transportation Association Policy, U.S.DOT of State Highway and Transportation TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Officials, LOUIS SANDERS ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Washington, DC Chief of Engineers and Commanding Gen., U.S. Army), APTA Rose A. General, U.S. Army Corps of McMurry, Engineers, Acting Deputy Washington, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.D DC BARRY R. WALLERSTEIN,RonaldExecutive Medford, Officer, ActingSouth DeputyCoast Air Quality Management Administrator, District, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, SECRETARY Diamond Bar, CA CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS U.S.DOT TRB Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of December 2010. *Membership as of MarchPolly 2011. Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of October 2009.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 88 Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains A Synthesis of Transit Practice Consultants JOEY M. GOLDMAN and GAIL MURRAY Nelson/Nygaard Consulting Associates San Francisco, California S ubscriber C ategories Public Transportation Passenger Transportation Safety and Human Factors Society Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 88 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and Project J-7, Topic SB-18 energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4880 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-14329-5 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to Library of Congress Control Number 2010943182 serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and 2011 Transportation Research Board. to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administra- used herein. tion (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Associa- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- tion (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the mate- successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, under- rial will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, takes research and other technical activities in response to the needs or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equip- this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropri- ment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and ate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced mate- administrative practices. rial. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act NOTICE of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlin- ing TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Tran- organizations: FTA, the National Academy of Sciences, acting through sit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Develop- Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the ment Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to moni- Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically tor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of sibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- Research Board, the Transit Development Corporation, the National als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel Research Council, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research Department of Transportation. problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the techni- TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in cal panel according to procedures established and monitored by the other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Gov- compensation. erning Board of the National Research Council. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, and nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for work- essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. Published reports of the The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative CHAIR Research Programs DWIGHT A. FERRELL CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Research Programs GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Senior Program Officer MEMBERS EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications DEBRA W. ALEXANDER Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF DONNA DeMARTINO STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA Special Programs MARK W. FUHRMANN Metro TransitMinneapolis/St. Paul JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and ROBERT H. IRWIN Synthesis Studies Consultant, Sooke, BC, Canada DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer JEANNE KRIEG DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant PAUL J. LARROUSSE DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ DAVID A. LEE Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT TOPIC PANEL FRANK T. MARTIN ALAN R. DANAHER, PB Americas, Inc., Orlando, FL Atkins, Tallahassee, FL DWIGHT A. FERRELL, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid BRADFORD J. MILLER Transit Authority Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority OLIVIA JONES, Star Trans, Inc. in Service to Capital Metro, HAYWARD M. SEYMORE, III Austin, TX Kitsap Transit, Bremerton, WA AMY KOVALAN, Chicago Transit Authority FRANK TOBEY WILLIAM P. MORRIS, University of South Florida, Tampa First Transit, Inc., Moscow, TN PAUL O'BRIEN, Utah Transit Authority PAM WARD PETER SHAW, Transportation Research Board Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA AARON S. WEINSTEIN, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid FTA LIAISON Transit District LISA COLBERT JOHN R. DAY, Federal Transit Authority (Liaison) Federal Transit Administration KAY F. NORDSTROM, Federal Transit Authority (Liaison) MICHAEL BALTES CHRISTOPHER NORRIS, Canadian Urban Transit Federal Transit Administration Association (Liaison) APTA LIAISON KEVIN DOW American Public Transportation Association TRB LIAISON JENNIFER ROSALES Transportation Research Board Acknowledgments: The research that produced this report was performed under TCRP Project J-7 by Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. Joey Goldman, Principal at Nelson\ Nygaard Consulting Associates, was this project's Principal Investigator. Mr. Goldman and Gail Murray of Nelson\Nygaard were the key authors of this report. They were supported in this project by Gordon Hansen of Nelson\Nygaard. We are grateful for the assistance provided to us by the members of our Topic Panel. We also appreciate the time and insights given to us by the many transit operators contacted for this research effort. Cover figure: Woman preparing to board bus with baby and collapsed umbrella stroller. (Courtesy of Capital Metro, Austin, Texas)

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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Coopera- tive Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE The purpose of this synthesis was to document the state of the practice of transit agencies managing capacity on vehicles carrying customers with large items. The synthesis also By Donna L. Vlasak includes a discussion of vehicle designs to accommodate these various large items. It was Senior Program Officer accomplished through a literature review, a transit agency survey, and through interviews Transportation with survey respondents who had a particular success, innovation, or experience that high- Research Board lighted issues with large items. Forty-two completed surveys were received from 42 transit agencies, a response ratio of 100%. As evidenced by report results, with the exception of wheelchairs and many types of mobility devices, policies regarding bicycles, strollers, carts, and other large items appear to be developed in response to particular circumstances experienced by the transit agen- cies. Six transit agencies' particular experiences offer more detail about these items, as well as policy considerations. Joey M. Goldman and Gail Murray, Nelson/Nygaard Consulting Associates, San Fran- cisco, California, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Overview, 5 Methodology, 5 Organization of Report, 6 7 CHAPTER TWO CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEYED TRANSIT AGENCIES Agency Policies, 11 Agency Operations, 11 16 CHAPTER THREE WHEELCHAIRS Literature Review on Wheelchairs and Wheelchair Accommodation Policies, 16 Survey Results, 18 One Agency's Experience: TriMet, Portland, Oregon--Revisiting Wheelchair Policies, 21 23 CHAPTER FOUR SEGWAYS, SCOOTERS, AND OTHER MOBILITY DEVICES Literature Review on Segways, Scooters, and Other Mobility Devices and Accommodation Policies, 23 Survey Results, 24 Segways, Scooters, and Other Mobility Aids on Paratransit, 28 One Agency's Experience: Metro Transit, Madison, Wisconsin--Learning Safe Operation of a Segway from a User, 28 30 CHAPTER FIVE STROLLERS Literature Review on Strollers and Stroller Accommodation Policies, 30 Survey Results, 33 One Agency's Experience: Tri Delta Transit, Antioch, California--Creating Space on Buses for Strollers, 36 38 CHAPTER SIX BICYCLES Literature Review on Bicycles and Bicycle Accommodation Policies, 38 One Agency's Experience: King County Metro, Seattle--Three-Position Bike Racks, 41 Survey Results, 42 One Agency's Experience: BART, San Francisco Bay Area--Innovations for Bicycle Access on Rail, 46 48 CHAPTER SEVEN LUGGAGE, CARTS, PARCELS, AND OTHER LARGE ITEMS Literature Review on Luggage, Carts, and Other Large Items and Accommodation Policies, 48 Survey Results, 50 One Agency's Experience: RoadRUNNER Transit, Las Cruces, New Mexico--A Different Way to Define Large Items, 53 General Large Items and Transport Aids (Strollers, Bicycles, Luggage, etc.) on Paratransit, 54 Other Large Items, 55 One Agency's Experience: Marble Valley Regional Transit District, Rutland, Vermont--Accommodating Skis and Snowboards, Suitcases and Pets, 57 58 CHAPTER EIGHT VEHICLE DESIGN Literature Review on Vehicle Design, 58 Survey Results, 60

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62 CHAPTER NINE POLICY CONSIDERATIONS Implementation, Enforcement, Public Information, and Public Perceptions, 62 Survey Responses, 62 One Agency's Experience: OC Transpo, Ottawa, Ontario--Developing, Refining, and Enforcing Policies, and Public Outcry, 69 71 CHAPTER TEN CONCLUSIONS Wheelchairs and Mobility Aids, 71 Strollers, 71 Bicycles, 72 Luggage, 72 Carts, Parcels, and Other Items, 72 74 REFERENCES 77 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 123 APPENDIX B LIST OF PARTICIPATING AGENCIES 125 APPENDIX C SUMMARY TABLES OF AGENCY POLICIES 133 APPENDIX D SAMPLE POLICIES