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38 CHAPTER SIX BICYCLES Some commuter buses are equipped with extra storage LITERATURE REVIEW ON BICYCLES AND BICYCLE space for luggage and other packages. Several agencies ACCOMMODATION POLICIES that responded to the survey allow bicycles to be stored in this space, typically located in a compartment below Allowing bicycles on transit extends the feasibility of taking the floor of the bus. transit by allowing riders to cover "the last mile," when the bus or train does not come close enough to the origin or des- [Rail:] tination for a comfortable walk. "Transit is most effective for ...One method of accommodation is to require bicyclists moderate- and long-distance trips on busy corridors, while to board designated rail cars and remain with their bikes cycling is effective for shorter-distance trips with multiple in designated areas. Agencies reported that between 2 stops. Combining transit and cycling can provide a high level and 16 bicycles could be accommodated per train in this of mobility comparable to automobile travel" (Spindler and manner, depending on restrictions. Some rail cars have special bike racks or hooks where bicyclists can store Boyle 1999). their bikes.... One responding transit agency provides a designated bicycle car with space for 17 bicycles in each The 2006 TCRP Synthesis 62: Integration of Bicycles and train set (...San Joaquin Regional Rail System...). Transit offers information regarding the history and current It is common for transit agencies to prohibit bicycle practices of bike integration on a variety of transit modes, access on train cars during peak travel times. This is done including bus, rail, vanpool, and ferry. The report, partly to reduce congestion on the train and to reduce friction in based on a survey of 56 North American transit agencies, boarding and exiting the train (Schneider 2006). explores the reasoning, formulation, and implementation of bicycle policies. The section detailing bike-on-bus policies Disputing the prohibition during peak travel times, bicy- focuses primarily on external bike racks; however, the report clist advocates call for a culture of acceptance for all com- notes that, if applicable, onboard bike policy is usually deter- muters. A survey sponsored by the San Francisco Bicycle mined by context and driver discretion. For rail, the focus Coalition recommends that BART ease or eliminate bike turns to onboard policies, including a series of tables that blackout restrictions, communicate existing guidelines/pro- examine transit agencies' methods of housing and secur- grams more effectively, study the feasibility of a bike car, ing the devices on light rail, heavy rail, and commuter rail explore installing bike hooks and priority areas on new cars vehicles. Table 22 consolidates the bicycle accommodation that BART intends to order, and review the agency's first-car tables from the synthesis. bike prohibition policy (Vi 2009). Key passages from the document's Summary follow: However, even public officials who support bicycle com- muters acknowledge the conflict between crowded trains [Buses:] and bicyclists. On a local radio show, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg expressed his concern about transport- ...The method used by most transit agencies is to mount a bicycle rack on the front of the bus. Front-mounted racks ing bikes on the subway during rush hour. Mayor Bloomberg, commonly carry two bicycles; however, more agencies are an avid supporter of mass transit (who also carries a legacy experimenting with racks that can hold three to five bicycles. of creating bike-only lanes and signals), prefers, for the sake Customers are responsible for loading and securing their of user comfort and ease, to keep the subway and bicycle bikes on the racks, and the racks can be folded up against the front of the bus when they are not in use. modes separate (Barbaro 2009). Some transit agencies allow bicycles to be taken on board One issue that bus operators have faced is the limit on the the bus. However, many agencies restrict bicycle access number of bicycles they can carry on the front of the bus. in the bus to prevent overcrowding. These agencies often give bus drivers the discretion to decide whether bicycles Some operators have modified the racks so that the bikes are allowed inside the bus. Drivers are more likely to do not block the headlights, according to TCRP Synthesis allow bicycles inside the bus when the racks are full, at 62, whereas others allow bikes only during daylight hours. night, or when service is infrequent (when the bus is the last bus of the evening on a particular route or there is a In California, AC Transit sponsored successful legislation to long wait before the next bus). extend the maximum rack length from 36 in. to 40 in., which

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39 TABLE 22 SUMMARY OF SURVEYED AGENCIES' BICYCLE ACCOMMODATION FROM TCRP SYNTHESIS 62 Bicycle-on-Bus Services Front-mounted racks that can hold two bicycles AMTRAN (Altoona, PA) Ann Arbor Transportation Authority (Ann Arbor, MI) Brownsville Urban System (Brownsville, TX) Calgary Transit (Calgary, Alberta) Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority (LYNX) (Orlando, FL) Central Ohio Transit Authority (Columbus, OH) Chicago Transit Authority (Chicago, IL) City of Visalia--Visalia City Coach (Visalia, CA) Clallam Transit System (Port Angeles, WA) Fort Smith Transit (Fort Smith, AR) Grand River Transit (Kitchener, Ontario) Grand Valley Transit (Grand Junction, CO) Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (HARTline) (Tampa, FL)1 Kamloops Transit System (Kamloops, British Columbia) Kelowna Regional Transit System (Kelowna, British Columbia) Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, CA) Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA) Maryland Transit Administration (Baltimore, MD) Metropolitan Transit Authority (Los Angeles, CA) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange, CA) Penticton Transit System (Penticton, British Columbia) Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) (Clearwater, FL) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) RochesterGenesee Regional Transportation Authority (Rochester, NY) San Diego Metropolitan Transit System (San Diego, CA) Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, PA) Space Coast Area Transit (Cocoa, FL) Springs Transit (Colorado Springs, CO) Tompkins Consolidated Area Transit (Ithaca, NY) TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia) Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District (TriMet) (Portland, OR) Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, UT) Victoria Regional Transit System (Victoria, British Columbia) Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority (Washington, DC) Whistler & Valley Express (Whistler, British Columbia)2 Front-mounted racks that can hold three bicycles Broward County Transit (Pompano Beach, FL) Clallam Transit System (Port Angeles, WA) Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, CA) Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) (Clearwater, FL) Oversized bike racks on the front and back of buses. Mountain Express (Crested Butte, CO) Each rack carries four or five bikes Bikes may be brought on board the bus at any time Grand River Transit (Kitchener, Ontario) Bikes may be brought on board the bus Clallam Transit System (Port Angeles, WA) at driver's discretion and/or under certain conditions Kamloops Transit System (Kamloops, British Columbia) Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange, CA) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) Space Coast Area Transit (Cocoa, FL) Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, UT) Table 22 continued on p. 40

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40 Table 22 continued from p. 39 Bicycle-on-Commuter Bus Services Front-mounted racks that can hold two bicycles Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority (LYNX) (Orlando, FL) Central Ohio Transit Authority (Columbus, OH) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) Front-mounted racks that can hold three bicycles Springs Transit (Colorado Springs, CO) Bicycles stowed in luggage/baggage storage areas AlamedaContra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) (Oakland, CA) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) Springs Transit (Colorado Springs, CO) Bicycle-on-Rail Services Bicyclists allowed to bring bikes on board and stand in Calgary Transit (Calgary, Alberta) designated areas Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA)3 Maryland Transit Administration (Baltimore, MD) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO)4 San Diego Metropolitan Transit System (San Diego, CA) TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia)3 TriMet (Portland, OR) Bikes stored on racks inside each rail car Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) (Santa Clara, CA) Bikes stored on hooks inside each rail car Metro Transit (Minneapolis, MN) New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) TriMet (Portland, OR) Bicyclists allowed on board trains and to stand in desig- Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA) nated areas only during off-peak hours TransLink (Greater Vancouver, British Columbia) Bicycle-on-Heavy Rail Service Bicycles allowed on board trains only during off-peak Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Boston, MA) hours and can only use designated areas in each train car Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, PA) Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (Washington, DC) Bicycles allowed on board trains at any time they will fit New York City Transit (New York City, NY) Maryland Transit Administration (Baltimore, MD)5 Bicycles allowed on board trains Chicago Transit Authority (Chicago, IL) only during off-peak hours; can use any part of the train Bicyclists allowed to bring bike on board during off- Bay Area Rapid Transit (San Francisco, CA) peak hours and on reverse commute direction trains dur- Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Los Angeles, CA) ing peak hours Bicycle-on-Commuter Rail Services Bicyclists allowed to bring bike on board in designated New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) areas Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, PA)3 Up to four bicycles can be tied down in each rail car Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange, CA) Bicycles stored on racks or hooks in each rail car Amtrak Capitol Corridor (Sacramento and Bay Area, CA) Caltrain6 New Jersey Transit Corp. (NJ TRANSIT) (Newark, NJ) San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission (Stockton, CA)6 Only enclosed folding bicycles are allowed on trains Maryland Transit Administration (Baltimore, MD) (MARC Train Service) 1 Bicyclists must obtain a permit to use the bus bicycle racks. 2 Racks are in place from mid-April until mid-November, when they are replaced by ski racks. 3 Bicyclists are not allowed to bring bicycles on board during peak hours. 4 Bicyclists are allowed during peak hours if traveling in reverse peak direction only (away from Denver central business district in AM; toward Denver central business district in PM). 5 Bicycles are allowed on board only in designated areas. 6 Designated cars with bicycle racks are provided.