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41 will allow bus operators to increase the capacity of the racks Clear Channel Outdoor has 11 established bike rental to carry three bicycles instead of two ("Rack `Em Up" 2010). schemes throughout Europe in cities, including Barcelona, Stockholm, and Dijon, and was working on a 1,200-bike The California DOT (Caltrans) provides an example of scheme for Milan (Carpiet 2008). After Clear Channel's accommodating bicycles even during heavy commute peri- bike-sharing program fell through in San Francisco, "three ods. Caltrans ferries up to 14 bikes on a van across the Bay of the big bike rental shops in the city have teamed up to Bridge from the East Bay to San Francisco during peak com- form ParkWide, which approached the Recreation and Park mute hours, when BART does not permit bikes on the trains. Department with a proposal to build a la carte bike rental Bicyclists load their bikes into a van at the MacArthur BART kiosks around the city, and starting a network of pick-up and station in Oakland. Although the bicyclists ride BART under drop-off points" (West 2010). the Bay, their bikes cross the bridge to the Transbay Termi- nal, where their owners can pick them up . The bike shut- tle operates during rush hours, four times in the morning ONE AGENCY'S EXPERIENCE: KING COUNTY METRO, between 6:20 and 8:30 a.m. and four times in the evening SEATTLE--THREE-POSITION BIKE RACKS between 3:50 and 6:15 p.m. The one-way cost is $1 ("Queen of the Road" 2010). AC Transit District's buses make this How does an agency carry more bikes on its buses without same trip, but the space to load bikes is more limited. How- violating the motor vehicle law or having the bikes fall off a ever, AC Transit's Transbay buses are available all day, and a longer rack? That was the challenge that King County Metro nighttime route runs from 1:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m. With these in Seattle, Washington, faced and solved. transit options, bicyclists can have their bike to ride at each end of their trip. Metro has carried bikes on the front of buses for more than 30 years. Initially, it responded to residents living on one side Only one agency that participated in the survey for TCRP of a floating bridge over Lake Washington who needed their Synthesis 62, HARTline in Florida, charged a fee for a bike- bikes on the other side of the lake. Metro installed racks on on-bus permit. HARTline requires a one-time training ses- buses serving the area and used bungee cords to secure the sion and a $2.50 fee, renewed annually, to bring a bike onto bikes. Over the years it used more sophisticated racks, and its buses. However, a fee in the Scandinavian countries, such in 1994 it installed two-position racks on all its transit vehi- as Sweden and Norway, is common. Norrkoping, Sweden, cles. However, when it responded to growing demand with charges a fee of 25 krona (about U.S.$3.50) for a single jour- a rack that could carry three bikes, it faced new problems. ney, including transfers. Mopeds are always prohibited, and Six bicycles fell off the first design of a three-position rack. bicycles are not allowed on express buses (Östgötatrafiken Bikes could bounce off the spring-loaded J-hook when the 2010). In Oslo, Norway, bikes are charged the same as a driver drove over a rough spot. Metro removed the racks and child's fare (Ruter 2008). worked for a year with Sportworks, the manufacturer, on a new design. The bus operators' union was also involved in Golden Gate Transit in Marin County, California, has pro- the committee reviewing the new design. A couple of bikes duced a brochure that can serve as an example of comprehen- had fallen off on the freeway, and drivers were concerned sive guidance for bicyclists on transit. This brochure offers an that they could be cited and fined by the Washington State overview of the agency's bike policy--with rules and limita- Patrol for losing their load. tions for bike storage, as well as step-by-step picture guides illustrating how to stow bikes on buses. Its 40-foot buses have The new design, called the Veloporter 3, is a ratchet sup- front-mounted bike racks, whereas the 45-ft models have port arm that is pulled up and over the bicycle to secure it. luggage bay (under-bus) compartments. On RichmondSan The rack is 36 in. longer to accommodate three bicycles. Rafael Bridge routes, bikes are allowed inside the vehicle but For safety, bicyclists can load their bikes from the curb or must be secured in (unoccupied) wheelchair positions using in front of the bus, never being required to load from the the riders' own straps. Golden Gate Ferry also allows up to 15 street. According to the manufacturer, the energy-absorbing bikes on its vessels (Golden Gate Transit 2010). wheel tray leaves the bike secure and undamaged even after an emergency stop (Sportworks 2010). In attempting to solve "the last mile" in a commute by transit, bicycle rentals have begun to spring up near transit In the past, Metro secured a change to the Washington stations. For example, Bikestation, a not-for-profit company Administrative Code that exempted transit buses from the in Long Beach, California, has plans to create a network of prohibition against mounting racks on the front or back of bicycle parking facilities along the LA Metrolink line. Its a vehicle. However, the three-position bike racks presented 600 sq ft facility, which opened in February 2010 in the a new issue. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108 refurbished Claremont Depot transit center, includes bike requires that the headlights on a bus not be blocked. Metro rentals, bike repair, and parking (Bikestation 2010). Accord- performed photometric testing, which proved that the racks ing to a 2008 article in Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, met the safety standard.