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5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW Summary of Literature Review Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains Materials examined included articles in journals, news- is a synthesis of the state of the practice by transit agen- papers, and industry magazines, as well as transit agency cies in managing capacity on vehicles carrying customers websites. The literature review focused primarily on North with large items. Items covered in this TCRP Synthesis American transit properties, but also examined policies in include chapters on wheelchairs; Segways, scooters, and Scandinavian countries. A 2003 article published by the other mobility aids; strollers; bicycles; luggage; and mis- Association for European Transport was also reviewed. cellaneous large items such as skis and dog carriers. The synthesis also includes a discussion of vehicle designs to Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act accommodate these various large items. of 1990 (ADA), a large body of literature has been written on the topic of wheelchairs. Because accommodation of wheel- Various riders compete for space on vehicles. The syn- chairs is well established in federal regulations, wheelchair thesis contains examples of public information materials policies are essentially standard throughout the industry and designed to communicate transit agencies' policies that were not repeated in the chapter on wheelchairs. Current attempt to deal with this competition. Brief case studies issues reflected in the report are about the lack of standard illustrate some of the challenges, best practices, and social securements and wheelchair sizes and about the move toward issues that arise from this competition. low-floor vehicles for ease of boarding. There is much less in the literature about other mobility aids. The objective was to document the state of the practice on issues identified in the scope: Some recent incidents with Segways that have made the news are documented. According to the reports, the incidents How space is prioritized, particularly among people have spurred new policies to handle Segways. Similarly, with disabilities, the elderly, and parents with strollers; conflicts involving strollers have made headlines, which are Passenger safety issues posed by large items; recounted in the literature referenced here. Transit agency capacity problems in the transportation of large items; As with wheelchairs, transit agencies are very familiar Complaints, incidents, and claims by the public relat- with carrying bicycles and have developed policies and pro- ing to large items on transit vehicles; cedures. The 2006 TCRP Synthesis 62, Integration of Bicy- Restrictions, blackout periods, and size limitations cles and Transit, is cited as a virtual bible of information imposed by the transit agency; and regarding the history and current practices of bike integra- Communication of policies to the public. tion on various transit modes. As evidenced by the literature search, policies regarding METHODOLOGY luggage, carts, and other large items seem to be developed in response to particular circumstances experienced by the Three data collection methods were used. First, a review transit agencies rather than universally, as in the case of of relevant literature was conducted on each of the types wheelchairs and, for the most part, bicycles. The literature of large items described in the overview. Second, data review also recounts how transit agencies and manufacturers collection was done using an original web-based survey. are modifying vehicles in an attempt to better accommodate Finally, interviews were conducted with survey respon- large items on trains and buses. dents whose agencies had a particular successful or inno- vative practice or an experience that highlighted many Survey of the issues with large items. Each chapter about a large item contains at least one agency profile in a brief case A web-based survey was used to gather data on transit study format. agency policies. The survey was tailored to operations that