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50 Vehicle Designs for Large Items allowed only in specially marked areas of trains. A child's fare is charged for animals that are not in a cage (stgta- As transit agencies refurbish vehicles or design replacement trafiken 2010). Nevertheless, all U.S. and Scandinavian sys- vehicles, they exhibit an increasing awareness of the con- tems reviewed for this literature search always allow service flicts between accommodating passengers and accommo- animals at no charge (Helsinki Region Transport 2010). dating their possessions (see Figure 41). For example, Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) will insert a new low-floor cen- ter section in its Super Light Rail Vehicles (SLRVs) to house SURVEY RESULTS luggage, wheelchairs, bicycles, and strollers. The platforms will be lowered for easier access and faster boarding by rid- Challenges and Concerns ers with these wheeled objects (DART 2008). Toronto's new Rocket subway cars will have two multipurpose areas for Figure 42 shows that many agencies (17 of 41, or 41%) deem wheelchairs, strollers, bicycles, or large luggage items. An luggage, carts, and parcels to be somewhat of an issue, and exterior blue light will show the best entrance doors to access most agencies consider accommodating these items to be these multipurpose areas (Kalinowski 2007). Golden Gate unimportant or not an issue. One agency determined these Transit District, which operates 45-foot commuter buses into items to be of high importance because passengers over- San Francisco, has compartments under the bus for luggage looked its posted policies, and cited a few extreme cases of (Golden Gate Transit 2010). Websites of bus and rail manu- abuse of policy. Most respondents, however, did not com- facturers highlight features they have included to store large ment on their choice. items, such as luggage and shopping bags. The literature search found mention in specific manufacturers' marketing As with specific responses to strollers, all of the agen- materials, including El Dorado National, North American cies that indicated they were very or somewhat concerned Bus Industries, Van Hool, Volvo, and Bombardier. with luggage, grocery carts, or parcels cited blocking of aisles/egress as a major concern. Two issues (in frequency of response) echoed responses to questions about other large items on transit vehicles--that is, agencies are concerned with vehicle crowding (17 of 22 agencies, or 77%) and lim- ited vehicle capacity (15 of 22 agencies, or 68%). Figure 43 illustrates the issues of concern to the transit agencies. Only one small agency recognized as a concern having to pass up riders when luggage, carts, or parcels cannot fit in a vehicle. Additionally, one large agency noted its concern that "bag- gage can become a projectile." FIGURE 41 This STM (Montral) bus with three large luggage racks is used on the route serving the airport (courtesy : Jean- Pierre Lajeunesse). Animals In addition to the typical items of carts and luggage dis- cussed, Scandinavian transit operators call out rules for han- FIGURE 42 Indicate whether bringing luggage, carts, and dling animals on transit vehicles. West Zealand and South parcels on your vehicles is considered an issue/concern/ Zealand, Denmark, allow dogs to be taken in a small con- challenge for your agency. tainer on all buses. In the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, large dogs are allowed only on certain lines, subject to the Overview of Agency Policies driver's assessment of whether there is room. They must be on a leash and are charged a child's fare, but a passenger Many passengers carry items with them onto transit vehi- may take only one dog (Movia 2010). Furry animals must be cles. Depending on the destinations and services that a tran- taken to the back of the bus or tram in Norrkoping, Sweden, sit line serves, passengers may bring luggage, small grocery out of consideration for allergy sufferers. These animals are carts, and parcels and packages onto rail vehicles and buses

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51 (see Figure 44). Of the 40 respondents, 24 (60%) reported Size Limits having a policy addressing luggage, grocery carts, and/or parcels on regular transit routes. Of these agencies, seven Fourteen of 24 respondents (58%) reported that their poli- out of 23 (30%) did not know when that policy came to be cies limit the size or number of suitcases, grocery carts, established. However, among known policy information, the or parcels on buses (Table 27). These policies range from earliest establishment date was 1972. general to very specific: some are akin to their stroller and FIGURE 43 If you indicated that luggage, grocery carts and/or parcels are a very important or somewhat important concern, why is it a concern for your agency (mark all that apply)? bicycle policy in that they ask passengers to avoid "block- ing aisles/doors," keep "a bag on lap or under seat only," or restrict items to within "wheelchair bays." Other poli- cies are more specific, whether in quantifiable restrictions or directions for passenger responsibility. Las Cruces RoadRUNNER has a very specific policy of equivalents for carry-on items: "eight plastic grocery bags, four paper bags," and determines that "small carts are allowed, but do not change the total bag limit." Some items, such as large backpacks, are measured as being equivalent to four paper bags. Las Cruces' policy is described in more detail at the end of this chapter. TABLE 27 DOES THE POLICY LIMIT THE SIZE OR NUMBER OF FIGURE 44 Suitcase rests precariously inside a PAAC SUITCASES, GROCERY CARTS, OR PARCELS? (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) bus that serves the airport Yes 58% (14) (courtesy : J. Goldman, Nelson\Nygaard Associates). No 42% (10) n = 24. Space for Luggage, Grocery Carts, and Parcels on Transit Vehicles Another small agency, Ottumwa Transit Authority, limits Fourteen of 40 (35%) surveyed transit agencies reported that items "to the quantity and size that the passenger can man- at least some of their vehicles have racks or storage areas age alone." Honolulu's TheBus notes that it "only allow[s] for luggage, grocery carts, or parcels. A few of the agen- bags that fit on one's lap or under the seat," which "effec- cies provided specific estimates of the number of vehicles tively prohibits luggage" from being brought on vehicles (see that have such amenities. Amounts varied from 100% of the Figure 45). fleet (LeeTran), to 50% "under-floor storage" (NJ Transit), to "paratransit vans ONLY have grocery nets across the Almost none of the rail operators surveyed limit the size back" (Laketran). BART responded that "some cars have or number of items on their vehicles. Six of the 14 agencies been modified through a grant project to have a larger seat- that operate both bus and rail services report that their lug- less area for bikes/strollers/luggage. This modification may gage, grocery cart, and parcel policy is the same for both eventually extend to the entire existing fleet, funding per- modes. Capital Metro noted that in contrast to the policy mitting." SEPTA and Capital Metro noted that their airport for buses, "there are currently no restrictions for luggage services feature luggage racks. or large items on rail." SEPTA commented that its policy is

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52 generally the same on all modes; however, "commuter rail Vehicle Locations for Luggage, Carts, and Parcels routes make connections with long-distance rail and inter- national flights" and thus, "conductors have discretion" to Seventeen of 24 agencies (71%) have a policy that requires allow more items (see Figure 46). luggage, grocery carts, or parcels to be stored in a specific location on a vehicle, and all of these are agencies that oper- ate buses (Table 28). Four of the agencies that operate rail commented that parcels must be kept out of the aisle. A large agency that operates both buses and rail cars implores pas- sengers to make sure their items are placed "not to the exclu- sion of a fare-paying customer." Eleven of the agencies' policies require that passengers with items keep them close to their person, and specifically require keeping items out of the aisle. Two agencies note that luggage, grocery carts, or parcels can be kept "on lap or under seat." Metro Transit in Madison posted its "Passenger Rule #9," "Do not block the aisle or restrict passenger movement with large articles, packages, baggage, non-collapsible strollers, and baby buggies." TABLE 28 DOES THE POLICY REQUIRE THAT SUITCASES, GROCERY CARTS, OR PARCELS BE STORED IN A SPECIFIC LOCATION ON VEHICLES? Yes 71% (17) No 29% (7) n = 24. Only three of 24 respondents (13%) specifically limit lug- gage, grocery carts, or parcels on a bus when wheelchairs are secured in the vehicle. Similarly, only one agency limits the FIGURE 45 Child, led by a woman with a large backpack, number of passengers with luggage, grocery carts, or par- squeezes by a grocery cart on a subway train (courtesy : J. cels allowed on a vehicle at one time. This agency explained Goldman, Nelson\Nygaard Associates). that a passenger with luggage or carts that would block the aisles or doors, given general or wheelchair capacity limits, would not be permitted onto the vehicle. Limitations by Time of Day or Route Type Only two agencies have policies regarding luggage, grocery carts, or parcels on vehicles during certain hours. MAX "rec- ommends" that passengers with these items "don't ride dur- ing peak PM travel times (2:00 p.m.5:00 p.m.)." Montreal's STM similarly restricts these items during "peak hours." A large proportion of responding agencies (21 of 24, or 88%) have a policy that is applicable to all routes and all vehicle types, although some offer caveats that the policy may be applied differently depending on size and capacity of vehicles. One agency noted that if the vehicle is full, pas- sengers are requested to "keep large items on your lap." FIGURE 46 Passenger with a suitcase prepares to board a Only two agencies noted that certain routes have different Capital Metro (Austin) bus (courtesy : Capital Metro). luggage and parcel restrictions from most of the others. One