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37 CHAPTER 7 Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Research RSA standards have changed over the years to improve 3. Develop a practical approach to assess the impact of: runway safety, but many existing airports were built under older, less distance available on the probability of overruns, under- demanding standards. To comply with the current standards, shoots, and veer-offs; the availability of EMAS as an alterna- some airports face enormous challenges due to physical, eco- tive to standard RSAs; the use of declared distances; and the nomical, and environmental restrictions. presence of obstacles in the RSA or its vicinity. Safety levels associated with the protection provided by 4. Develop user-friendly software that incorporates the meth- RSA's can be different from airport to airport. Two airports odology and models developed as a practical tool that air- with similar runway lengths and RSA configurations may have port stakeholders may use to evaluate RSA alternatives. very different conditions related to operations and weather. 5. Field test the software developed and validate the new tool Factors like aircraft model, runway elevation, visibility condi- and models based on data gathered according to an airport tions, and availability of NAVAID's also have an impact on the survey plan. risk of each operation. When airports do not comply with the RSA standards and Each of these goals was accomplished, and the major there is a need to improve existing conditions, it is necessary achievements are presented below. to evaluate the alternatives that can be most effective to reduce risk and compare the safety levels achieved and the associated costs for each option. Major Achievements The objective of this study was to develop a software tool Extended Database of Accidents that can be used for risk assessments associated with incidents and Incidents occurring in the RSA. The basis of the approach used in this study was presented The database developed under the study presented in ACRP in ACRP Report 3. Analysis capabilities were enhanced by Report 3 included 459 aircraft overrun and undershoot acci- improving the risk models to address the analysis of runway dents and incidents occurring from 1980 to 2006. The database declared distances, the use of EMAS, and incorporating the was expanded significantly to 1414 events with the inclusion approach to evaluate the presence of obstacles in or in the of overruns and undershoots occurring from 2006 to 2009, vicinity of the RSA. In addition, it is now possible to evalu- and the addition of veer-off events and information provided ate the risk of aircraft veer-off in the lateral sections of the by MITRE. RSA. The result is a powerful tool to help the aviation indus- Additional events were identified using a manual search of try perform risk assessments. the FAA incident databases and the accidents and incidents in- The major goals of this study can be summarized as follows: volving GA aircraft with MTOW between 5,600 and 12,000 lb, which had been excluded from the ACRP Report 3 study. 1. Update the ACRP Report 3 accident/incident database to The comprehensive database is organized with editing and incorporate aircraft overrun and undershoot accidents querying capabilities, and information is available according and incidents occurring after 2006 and include runway to different categories including synopsis of the event, air- veer-off events occurring since 1980. craft involved, airport and weather characteristics, level of 2. Develop risk models for frequency and location for each consequences, wreckage location, and major causal and con- type of incident. tributing factors.