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A-1 APPENDIX A Functional Hazard Analysis Results Introduction nel, and specialist risk assessors. The objective of the workshop is to explore all relevant operational scenarios and identify haz- As described in the body of this report, one of the subtasks ards associated with them. The output of the FHA is a "hazard of this project was to carry out a functional hazard analysis log," including all hazards identified and preliminary informa- (FHA) for aircraft overruns, undershoots, and veer-offs based tion about them that can be provided by the workshop team. on information gathered in the literature review. The objec- tive of this subtask was to identify the most relevant factors Summary of Relevant associated with such events to support the data collection effort Factors Identified for accidents and incidents. Identifying such factors causing or contributing to such events was also part of the modeling Table A1 summarizes the factors that are believed to lead process involved in this study. to overrun, undershoot, and veer-off accidents and incidents FHAs often are conducted in the form of a brainstorming based on FHA studies and literature review. Most of these fac- workshop involving a multi-disciplinary team, for example in- tors were identified in ACRP Report 3 and other studies, but cluding pilots, air traffic controllers, airside operations person- some were added based on available reports from other sources. Table A1. Summary of factors causing or contributing to aircraft overrun, undershoot, and veer-off occurrences. Event Category Factor Landing Overrun Weather Tail Wind (LDOR) Cross Wind Wind variations (gusts, shear) Visibility Ceiling Temperature Airfield Surface contaminants and friction (water, snow, ice, slush, rubber deposits) Landing Distance Available (LDA) Slopes (longitudinal and transverse) Altitude Runway profile System faults Pilot Landing long Unstabilized approach Landing fast High threshold crossing height "Pressonits" Incorrect (delay) application of thrust reverse (if available) and spoilers Incorrect (delay) application of brakes Delayed nose-wheel lowering `Over-consideration' for comfort Incorrect interpretation of reported operation conditions Landing on the wrong runway Aircraft Landing Distance Required (LDR) Weight System faults (e.g. brake systems failure) (continued on next page)
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A-2 Table A1. (Continued). Event Category Factor Takeoff Overrun Weather Tail Wind (TOOR) Wind variations (gusts, shear) Cross wind Temperature Airfield Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA) Surface contaminants and friction (water, snow, ice, rubber deposits) in case of aborted takeoff Slopes (longitudinal and transverse) in case of aborted takeoff Altitude Pilot Delay to abort takeoff when required Incorrect (delay) application of thrust reverse (if available) and spoilers, in case takeoff is aborted Incorrect (delay) application of brakes, in case takeoff is aborted Incorrect interpretation of reported operation conditions Selection of wrong runway Aircraft System or component malfunction require to abort takeoff Accelerate-Stop Distance Required (ASDR) Landing Weather Visibility Undershoot Ceiling (LDUS) Wind variations (gusts, shear) Temperature Crosswind Airfield System faults Availability of navigational aids Altitude Pilot Approach too low Attempt to land too close to arrival end of the runway Misinterpretation of approach procedures Visual illusion resulting incorrect pilot response Aircraft System faults Stall speed Approach speed Takeoff Veer-Off Weather Crosswind (TOVO) Wind gusts Heavy rain Airfield Runway contamination (water, snow, ice, rubber) Bird strike Runway undulation Construction work Pilot/Crew Abort takeoff above V1 Incorrect performance calculation Incorrect CG Incorrect runway distance available Aircraft Engine power loss Blown tire Undercarriage collapse Loss of directional control Landing Veer-Off Weather Cross wind (LDVO) Wind gusts Tailwind Turbulence Windshear Airfield Runway contamination (water, snow, ice, slush, rubber) Snow banks Pilot Hard landing with landing gear failure Unstabilized approach Go around not conducted Touchdown long Touchdown hard/bounce Aircraft Spontaneous collapse of undercarriage Asymmetric forces due to thrust reverse problem Asymmetric forces due to braking problem Steering control system malfunction