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Signing and Wayfinding Process 13 Ask how long the temporary signs will be in service to determine what materials are required to maintain a good appearance throughout the construction period. It is easy to overlook particular passenger needs so plan carefully to make sure the wayfinding chain is not broken during construction. With respect to construction phasing and temporary signage, the same guidelines apply as for permanent signs with respect to letter height, terminology, color and content. The only differ- ence would be in the quality of the materials used to fabricate the sign. Once construction is com- pleted, an evaluation of the signing should be conducted to verify that the new signage promotes improved wayfinding. For temporary signs used in roadway construction areas, Part 6 of the MUTCD includes detailed typical layout drawings for road work areas. Temporary signing should include key des- tinations such as terminal, parking, rental car return, and airport exit, at a minimum. 2.2.13 Passenger Wayfinding Experience--Additional Thoughts Customer expectancy--The customer, in this case a passenger, expects to have to find their way through the airport, so they will be looking for the information that will guide them to the correct terminal, parking lot, etc. Information overload--Information overload is exactly what it sounds like; too much infor- mation on one sign and/or too many signs in a given area. Consequences--The violation of customer expectancies and information overload can be serious. On a roadway condition, the consequences are motorists weaving across lanes to avoid missing their turn or making other unsafe movements in traffic because they are not sure where to go. In parking and curbside areas, where pedestrians often share the same space with motorists, the potential consequence of an auto-related fatality is a major concern. Inside the terminal, the consequence of lost and confused passengers is the risk of a missed flight. The following are ways to avoid these consequences: Violation of customer expectancies--Present the wayfinding information in a uniform and standardized manner along with consistent sign placement. Violation of user expectations will result in losing passenger confidence in the airport's wayfinding system, which in turn will create a negative perception. Information overload--Establish a clear and concise messaging hierarchy combined with consistent application throughout the wayfinding experience from roadway to gate. 2.3 Developing a Wayfinding Strategy Wayfinding in an airport environment can be extremely complex, so before any planning or design work begins, it is important to develop a strategy for wayfinding. The following three steps are essential in the development of a sound wayfinding strategy: Step One: Buy-In. Buy-in from the airport executives is a fundamental and critical step. Because most wayfinding programs fall under an airport's capital expense program, it is important to understand the business value side of the equation and to secure support for

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14 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside both the initial effort and ongoing commitment to perpetuate the integrity of the wayfinding system. Step Two: Adopt a wayfinding philosophy. Example: The perception of wayfinding is often thought of simply as a sign. The reality is that each sign communicates information critical to the driver or passenger experience. Therefore, when it comes to planning, designing, and main- taining your airport, what level of emphasis do you place on wayfinding? Ask questions like "Is `that' sign secondary to the advertising that generates revenue?" in order to establish a clear pri- ority for the wayfinding at your airport. In short, wayfinding information should take priority over other types of visual information such as advertising and retail so that they do not adversely affect the passenger wayfinding experience. Therefore, a recommended philosophy is to create specific information zones. Step Three: Logic. Section 2.3.3 looks at the factors that impact wayfinding as well as the key concepts that drive the development of wayfinding logic, including continuity, connectivity, and consistency. Using the connectivity factor as an example: Multi-level buildings can create complex passenger movements: some paths are unique, other paths will overlap. To avoid cre- ating wayfinding gaps, each path must be mapped and decisions points, identified in a consis- tent and efficient manner for each type of passenger movement. The goal for the sum total of these three sections is to provide the knowledge and insight necessary to develop an airport-specific wayfinding strategy. 2.3.1 Buy-In Before a person is willing to buy something, they usually want to know what the value of the goods or services is. With regards to wayfinding, it can be challenging to effectively measure the value in a tangible manner. Research studies have developed metrics to evaluate wayfinding. Customer satisfaction surveys are another tool to help measure wayfinding. Last but not least, wayfinding can also be measured in terms of revenue. No matter how you measure the value of wayfinding at an airport, it is a fact that good wayfinding equals improved performance. Lost Passengers = Lost Revenue Wayfinding can also be measured as a level of service (LOS). The research studies from Churchill, Anthony, et al. "consistently show the importance of wayfinding and give it significant weight with respect to the determination of the overall Level of Service (LOS) of the terminal. Analysis by Correia et al. (2008), for example, produced results showing that wayfinding was the third most important of 10 LOS variables considered--scoring higher than check-in and departure lounge, two facilities traditionally assigned a LOS measure. Similarly, de Barros et al. (2007), when considering transfer passengers, found wayfinding the fourth most important of 21 variables." Airports should understand that the more time passengers spend driving, waiting, walking, or trying to find their destination, the lower the perceived LOS. If an airport takes its role seriously and considers customer satisfaction as a non-disputable requirement, efficient wayfinding should be provided.

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Signing and Wayfinding Process 15 Passenger frustration that results from a difficult wayfinding experience creates high levels of stress. Once stress takes over, it takes time for the passenger to recover. In terms of business impact to an airport, this may mean that the passenger prefers to wait at the gate and not return to the food court or retail areas, which equals lost revenue. Lost passengers also ask employees questions, which in turn impacts employee productivity. 2.3.2 Philosophy Even without all of the supporting research, it is easy to acknowledge that airports can be very complex: both operationally and architecturally. When looking for answers to solve complex wayfinding issues, one challenge is how to physically and visually get your mind around the prob- lem. Whether on an airport roadway system, in a parking garage, curbside, or inside a terminal, the answer is to start globally. Using a terminal area as an example, an airport with multiple levels and buildings, needs to be viewed in a manner that can tie them all together. Researchers have emphasized the importance of conceptualizing ALL features of the built environment as a wayfinding system52, 53. O'Neill recommends the use of actual observations of wayfinding performance to permit a clearer understanding of how architectural design features influence human performance. Ideally, preliminary building design discussions should consider the wayfinding system in order to create effective, intuitive architecture that requires less signs and more architectural ele- ments that improve communication and circulation. Additionally, it is equally important to cre- ate specific information zones. For example: Wayfinding information inside the terminal should take priority over other types of visual information such as advertising and retail so they do not adversely affect the passenger wayfinding experience. 2.3.2.1 Global Perspective--Begins with Airport Design Just as there are many factors that affect the design of an airport, there are also many factors that impact an airport's wayfinding system. It is important to understand what these factors are and how they relate. From a global perspective, the first goal of creating a well-designed signing and wayfinding sys- tem begins with the design of the airport itself, because the design of the signs and wayfinding are developed as a direct response to the airport environment. The configuration of the roadways and parking, the relationship of the curbside areas to the terminal, and the architecture and lay- out of the terminal and gates all have a major impact on the passenger wayfinding experience. Therefore, wayfinding must be integrated at the beginning of the planning process and continue throughout. Therefore, the designers and engineers involved in the airport planning and design process must first acknowledge, then understand, and finally take into account the impact they have on an airport's wayfinding system. This fundamental philosophy that wayfinding challenges are cre- ated by complex built environments was a recurring theme in the development of this guideline and is supported by numerous research studies that document this issue. The second goal of a wayfinding strategy is to value it. It is critical to think of your airport's wayfinding system as a building system such as the HVAC system, the communication sys- tem, the electrical system, etc. All of these systems require maintenance and service in order for your airport to operate efficiently. Your wayfinding system should be treated no differ- ently. This is a very important concept to make part of every airport's culture. In order for the airport's wayfinding to be successful, it must be treated as an integral part of the airport's building systems.

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16 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside 2.3.2.2 Roadway Drivers entering an airport roadway system bring with them all of their experience and expec- tations about roadway design and traffic control. This experience is gained by driving on con- ventional roads and highways. The more an airport road can be made to look and function like a regular road, the more it will conform to driver expectations, which will lead to a safer and less frustrating driving experience. Many airports try to make their roadway signs look like their terminal interior signs to pres- ent a unified facility identity. It is important to remember that roadway signs should be consid- ered fundamentally different than interior signs. The users of roadway signs are moving and their attention should primarily be directed toward the safe operation of their vehicle. Drivers will more easily and safely navigate when they can rely on their previous experience with roadway signs. By making airport roadway signs look and feel like other roadway signs, the needs of the driver are better served. The guidelines developed for this section are primarily based on research and standards for general roadway signing. Since federal and state standards apply to airport roads open to public travel, readers must consult the original source documents for the details of implementation. 2.3.2.3 Parking All areas of signage should be an extension of a global philosophy so that the wayfinding expe- rience is consistent as a person moves from one functional area to another. Granted, the activi- ties being performed in a parking garage are different than those at the terminal curbside, which are different than activities within terminal buildings. Signage for and within each of these facil- ities, however, should be coordinated so that users learn to anticipate and look for information based on reliable sign placement, messages, colors, icons, etc. At one time, parking was just a necessary function airports had to provide their patrons, but was little more than an afterthought compared with terminals and runways. Today, parking is one of the largest sources of unencumbered revenue for an airport as well as one of its largest sources of complaints by travelers and employees. Fortunately, signing, as it relates to parking, is now reaping the benefits of both careful planning and technology. Airports (as well as other major transportation hubs) are employing a user-perspective approach where adequate information is delivered at the necessary locations in the appropriate form. With regards to parking, signage needs to address--if not absolutely separate--vehicle traffic and pedestrian traffic. While a driver needs to either find a parking space or find the exit from the parking facility, pedestrians are attempting to locate themselves and the most direct route to the terminal or back to their vehicle. Signage for each group should be readily identifiable, suc- cinct and repeated so that users receive both directions and confirmation of their travel paths. The more direct and safe the route for both drivers and pedestrians within a parking facility, the less stress and frustration users experience. 2.3.2.4 Curbside and Ground Transportation The terminal curbside is often the most hectic, high-energy, and confusing area at an airport. Although signage cannot overcome physical limitations and geometric difficulties, a well-planned sign system at and along the terminal curbside can boost the efficiency and safety of the space. Airports need to examine regulatory and information signage as a whole and consider the phi- losophy that less signage may be more useful at the curbside where so much activity is already taking place. The effective management of the limited real estate at terminal curbsides becomes critical, and signage may be the most important factor outside of the physical layout of the area. This chapter describes signing suggestions for the curbside/ground transportation areas while maintaining an overall design cohesion across the entire airport. The signage discussed is

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Signing and Wayfinding Process 17 all exterior directions, identification, and informational signs for public use at the following locations: Curbside, Departures Drop-off/Check-in, Arrivals Pick-up, and Ground Transportation Curbsides. In addition, airports are continually taking a more customer-centric approach to their sig- nage. Regarding this philosophy, negative signs that convey what you are not permitted to do are being substituted with signage that is more positive. For example, "No Parking" signs can be replaced with "For Security Purposes, Emergency Vehicles Only." In order to conform to the MUTCD, standard parking regulatory signs should be used as the primary signs. Explanatory signs aimed primarily at customer service should be considered supplemental as sign installation space permits. 2.3.2.5 Terminal There is relevant research that can be applied to develop a systematic process for evaluating an airport terminal that will ultimately yield improvements in the passenger wayfinding experience by understanding why passengers get lost. When this process is combined with consistent appli- cation of the recommended guidelines for design elements (typography, symbology, arrows, leg- ibility, etc.) the net result can provide continuity within an airport as well as across the aviation industry. When passengers travel from one airport to another, the information they need is pre- sented in a consistent and uniform manner based on the new guidelines. When reviewing these research studies, one common denominator was the role that airport planning has in wayfinding (e.g., floor plan layout, number of different levels, etc.). One study by Andre states how the vast structure of the passenger terminal creates a complexity that most archi- tects involved in airport planning are not equipped to simplify; that is, they lack a formal, theo- retical framework for understanding human spatial cognition and for relating its implications to the design of the terminal or its wayfinding system (e.g., signs, maps, directions)2. While this is a strong statement, it does imply the need to address, on some level, the impact the architectural design has on how intuitive a space is versus how complex it can be. Other examples of literature research yielded interesting information with regards to the role architectural configuration has on wayfinding. O'Neill3 notes that each wayfinding study devel- oped a set of variables thought to influence wayfinding. Of these variables, a number of studies suggest the complexity of floor plan configuration is the primary influence on wayfinding per- formance. It was also noted that signing is commonly employed in an attempt to compensate for the complex floor plan layouts in environments such as subways, hospitals, and airports, and these are the environments in which wayfinding is a chronic problem. As expected, the results show that an increase in plan complexity is related to a decrease in wayfinding performance. Despite the use of signs, the plan configuration was found to exert a significant influence on wayfinding performance because participants with access to signing in the most complex settings still made more wrong turns than those in the simplest settings with no signs. Apparently, the presence of signs is not able to compensate for wayfinding problems due to the complexity of the floor plan. However, this is exactly what wayfinding in a complex airport environment is expected to do! 2.3.3 Logic Section 2.3.2 focused on wayfinding strategy step two, the wayfinding philosophy. This sec- tion will focus on step three, wayfinding logic. The successful development of wayfinding logic

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18 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside in step three is contingent on having established a clear wayfinding philosophy on which to build. For example, without placing a priority on an airport's wayfinding to establish distinct informa- tion zones, the visual clutter and distractions from advertising and retail will undermine the benefits of applying the wayfinding logic. 2.3.3.1 Factors That Impact Wayfinding Logic--Wayfinding in Threes In separate and unrelated research studies, there was a common wayfinding denominator of three used to describe and/or forecast wayfinding problems. Each study represents a different viewpoint on wayfinding, and taking time to understand these different viewpoints can provide an airport with a broader knowledge base. Sylvia Harris, Information Design Strategist based in New York City, believes the most navigable spaces have at least three tools: Maps for people with good targeting skills, Landmarks for those with strong memorization skills, and Live personal support for those who prefer verbal instructions. The goal is to create a supportive space that presents the user with a wide range of wayfinding tools. Creating a supportive environment begins by embracing redundancy. Researcher Andre agrees that a total wayfinding system is comprised of many elements, but a person's wayfinding ability is most impacted by the physical environment. In order to forecast wayfinding problems, the physical variables need to be identified. These include: The degree of differentiation, The degree of visual access, and The complexity of the spatial layout. The perceived level of customer service and satisfaction is influenced by the extent to which passengers can easily find their way through the terminal building. According to researcher Few- ings4, this leads to the human factor aspect; do all air travelers wayfind in the same way? And what techniques are actually used by people to find their way? Where the route selection involves searching for--or being given information on--new routes, it is termed a dynamic choice problem. This is the type of problem faced by first-time travelers on entering an airport terminal. There is a difference between how individuals wayfind depending on their reasons for needing to reach a destination. From a passenger perception point of view, the journey is just as important as the destination. The three techniques that have been identified are recreational, resolute and emergency wayfinding. They are described as the following: Recreational wayfinding offers an individual the opportunity to solve problems (where to go next, for example) that can be a source of satisfaction and enjoyment. An example is walking or driving for pleasure, where the traveler is not in a hurry to reach a destination, and there- fore, the experience of wayfinding takes priority over the functional aspect of getting from point A to point B. Resolute wayfinding is used where the main purpose is to find one's way in the most efficient manner. The complexity of the environment may have positive or negative aspects depend- ing on the type of wayfinding being undertaken. Under emergency wayfinding conditions, the only important factor is reaching the destination as quickly and easily as possible. Due to pressures of time, and possible human factor elements such as stress and panic (fire evacuation of a building), wayfinding must be as simple as possible. A typical passenger wayfinding experience inside an airport is rarely recreational, most often resolute, and on occasion when faced with the prospect of missing a flight, may be considered an

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Signing and Wayfinding Process 19 emergency on the part of the passenger. Nevertheless, of Andre's three dynamic choices, resolute wayfinding is the primary driver behind the programming and design of an airport wayfinding system. Many of these studies also address wayfinding in a linear/sequential manner (i.e., check-in, security, passport control, and departure gate). Fewings' study cites the principle clues used to wayfind can be identified as landmarks, paths, nodes, and edges. The paths and nodes form net- works that can be used as a basis to formulate the wayfinding logic. According to Braaksma and Cook5, there are three ways of making corrections to ensure better visibility inside an existing terminal: Change the existing sign and wayfinding system (cheaper solution), or Physically modify the terminal layout so elements become more visible (expensive solution), or Use a combined approach of making changes to the sign system along with physical modi- fications. What this and other studies do not address are the non-linear wayfinding scenarios that a pas- senger can encounter. The identification of non-linear wayfinding scenarios in a multi-level, multiple-building airport requires a more investigative approach as compared to a sequential wayfinding problem that can be solved with a more evaluative method. What is an example of a hypothetical non-linear wayfinding scenario? A passenger parks on level four in Garage A, checks in on level two at Terminal A, departs from Concourse B, and returns on level one at Terminal E. How do they find their car? Connecting passengers can also find a similar challenge when faced with walk-versus-ride choices to get from one terminal to another that can result in a non-linear wayfinding scenario. This directory (Figure 2.6) at Boston Logan Airport (BOS) is a good example of communicat- ing the challenges associated with making successful choices to make a flight connection at this airport. Figure 2.6. A directory at BOS helps passengers navigate non-linear wayfinding challenges by understanding walk vs. ride options.

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20 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside 2.3.3.2 Identify the Wayfinding Logic Each airport environment is different and the wayfinding logic used at one airport may not necessarily work at another airport. Step one was gaining buy-in. Step two was adopting a wayfinding philosophy. Step three towards developing an airport wayfinding strategy is identi- fying the wayfinding logic. Taking time to develop the wayfinding logic behind a given airport will provide the key that helps unlock the "why" behind the wayfinding solutions. Another way to think of the logic is analyzing the user circulation patterns, both vehicular and pedestrian. In David Gibson's book, The Wayfinding Handbook: Information Design for Public Places, he identifies the following four main types of wayfinding logic based on connectors, districts, land- marks and streets that can all be used to help the passenger understand and navigate an airport environment easier: Connector model--In concept, this wayfinding strategy follows a loop that leads passengers to different destinations (Figure 2.7). The connector is a simple bold pathway that connects all the destinations. Examples include an airport roadway system that connects multiple ter- minal buildings, like at John F. Kennedy International (JFK), or an airport Advanced Parking Management (APM) system that connects passengers to multiple terminals, like at Dallas/ Ft. Worth International (DFW). Districts model--In concept, this wayfinding strategy is applicable when an airport is divided into separate districts that create meaningful zones (Figure 2.8). It is applicable to airports with multiple terminals and or multiple parking options. Landmarks model--In concept, this wayfinding strategy can use architectural features or art- work as landmarks to direct passengers to major destination points. Landmarks help passengers navigate the way to go because they respond to focal points (Figure 2.9). Streets model--In this concept, easily recognizable corridors or pathways illustrate the wayfinding metaphor of streets (Figure 2.10). Figure 2.7. An example of the connector model at JFK.

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Signing and Wayfinding Process 21 Figure 2.8. An example of the districts model at Atlanta where the concourses are divided into separate zones. What is the benefit of identifying the wayfinding logic within an airport? The mental process involved will help an airport better understand how to identify the key touch points along the circulation routes as passengers transition through the different stages of airport wayfinding: roadway, parking, curbside, and terminal. 2.3.3.3 Continuity Another key concept that applies to virtually any airport wayfinding logic is continuity. There are two ways to apply the continuity concept. The first method applies mostly to linear wayfind- ing scenarios. Start by thinking of each decision point as a link in a wayfinding chain. In order Source: Jon Yee. Figure 2.9. Munich Airport: the BMW Sheer Driving Pleasure sculpture weaving across the terminal serves as a constant landmark from both the ticketing and mezzanine levels.

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22 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 2.10. Concourse A at Detroit Metropolitan Airport's (DTW) McNamara Terminal serves as an example of a streets model, with road-like pathways. for a chain to serve its intended purpose, each link must be connected. The wayfinding chain is no different. Whether driving or walking, if a person reaches a decision point and the message they are following is missing, the wayfinding chain is broken and they become lost as a result. For motorists this can quickly become a safety issue when they begin making wrong turns or weaving across lanes. One of the wayfinding evaluation methods is to test the wayfinding chain for airport destinations by physically driving and walking through the entire wayfinding journey for each destination. The second method is related to non-linear wayfinding scenarios that are more analogous to a spider web, where every strand of the web is connected. It is practically impossible to touch any strand in the web without the rest of the web moving. If the overall airport wayfinding sys- tem is a wayfinding web, many airports fall into the trap of making changes to one part of the web without realizing how those changes tie into the rest of the wayfinding system. This lack of understanding can result in gaps in continuity as changes are inevitably made to the airport wayfinding system. Therefore, when maintaining an airport wayfinding system it is vital to the integrity of the wayfinding to thoroughly evaluate the ripple effect of any changes to the airport's wayfinding web in order to avoid creating any gaps. The ripple effect can be far-reaching and can become quite challenging when applied to non- linear wayfinding scenarios. However, some of the challenges can be simplified by matching up points of origin with destination points. In other words, start by asking where people are com- ing from and where are they going, which leads into connectivity. The previous section looked at factors that impact the wayfinding logic. Now it is important to look at the factors that affect planning the route. Linear wayfinding scenarios tend to focus on one route that is dictated by the roadway or architecture with multiple decision points along the route. On the other hand, non-linear wayfinding scenarios may have several different routes to choose from. How do you determine which is the best route? By evaluating each possible route with the following three factors: Safety Length Simplicity Safety. Priority number one is always safety, so are there situations where the safest route is not the best overall route? Absolutely. There may be other routes that are equally as safe but can offer a simpler or shorter path without sacrificing safety.

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Signing and Wayfinding Process 23 Figure 2.11. A dedicated pedestrian pathway in a parking garage at DFW airport. Length. It is easy to believe the shortest distance between two points is always the best route, but not necessarily when it comes to wayfinding. The shortest route may place pedestrians in conflict with vehicular traffic and therefore create a major safety hazard. Just because a route is the shortest does not mean it's the safest, especially in environments shared by vehicles and pedestrians, such as parking garages (Figure 2.11). Both pedestrians and vehicles share the same parking and curbside areas. The preferred path of travel must factor in safety. Simplicity. In complex wayfinding environments like an airport, it is important to keep the wayfinding as simple as possible. However, simple is not always best. For instance, if time is the most critical factor for a passenger making a connecting flight and they are faced with a choice to walk vs. ride, the simplest route may not be the quickest and a passenger risks missing their flight. By incorporating these three factors as part of the process for developing the wayfinding logic, the best overall route for any given airport can be identified. 2.3.3.4 Connectivity The simplest way to explain connectivity is origin and destination--where people are coming from and where they are going. Different types of passengers can have different means of access to the same destination. For instance, the seemingly simple task of guiding a passenger to the airport terminal can vary greatly. Figure 2.12 illustrates how each of these different origination points need to all connect the wayfinding system.

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24 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Multi-level buildings can create complex passenger movements: some paths are unique, other paths will overlap. Each path must be mapped and decisions points iden- tified in a consistent and efficient manner for each type of passenger movement. Passen- ger types to consider include: Departing passengers Arriving passengers--terminating Arriving passengers--connecting Whether tracking linear or non-linear wayfinding routes, using exploded axonomet- Figure 2.12. Each origination ric views (Figure 2.13) can help map the flow of different types of passengers. point within the airport must connect the wayfinding system. Figure 2.13. Exploded axonometric flow diagram for arriving passengers. The dashed red and blue lines represent non-linear passenger circulation paths in a complex multi- level terminal.

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Signing and Wayfinding Process 25 2.3.3.5 Follow Through with Consistency The above wayfinding chain and spider web analogies are two ways to illustrate the continu- ity concept, but the underlying principle is consistency. If there is one word to describe the backbone of an airport wayfinding system it is consistency. From the moment a driver enters the airport until they board their plane, information must be presented in a consistent manner (Figure 2.14). Figure 2.14. These photos from DFW show how the alpha terminal identifier destinations are consistently presented in easy to understand symbol icons.

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26 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside When evaluating either existing or proposed wayfinding solutions, step one is to determine if it is consistent with the airport's wayfinding strategy and consistent with proven wayfinding design principles. For vehicular wayfinding, the consistent application of the positive guidance approach is used to increase the likelihood of drivers responding to situations and information quickly and cor- rectly. See Figure 2.15 for examples of inconsistent application of terminal identifiers. Consistency becomes visible to passengers through the following design elements: Terminology and message hierarchy, Visibility and legibility, Typography and symbology, and Format and color. Consistent presentation of information extends to other forms of communication like maps, directories, and websites. Communication itself must be consistent in both verbal and written form so the public does not become confused by the use of different terms for the same thing. The backbone of consistency ties directly back to the primary objective which is to achieve uniform application of the guidelines within each airport and from one airport to another. 2.3.3.6 Celebratory Last but not least, look for creative ways to celebrate the remarkable experience of air travel. Decorative graphics on feature walls, thematic design treatment of the sign system, artwork, and landmarks can all be used as means to celebrate with emotion (Figures 2.16 through 2.19). Figure 2.15. Examples of inconsistent application of terminal identifiers within the same airport. In the second sign the bottom photo also illustrates incon- sistent terminology use between terminals or gates.

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Signing and Wayfinding Process 27 Figure 2.16. Entrance to the Men's and Women's restrooms at the Jacksonville Airport (JAX). Figure 2.17. The security screening experience can be somewhat "discombobulating," so it only makes sense to provide passengers with a "Recombobulation Area." Figure 2.18. Sensory perception is another way to evoke emotion in a memorable way. The sight and sound of the animated water feature is a great example at DTW's McNamara Terminal (photo courtesy of Vito Palmisano).

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28 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 2.19. Artwork in the form of paper airplane sculptures leads arriving passengers in Denver from the airport train by pointing the way up the escalator to the terminal without depending on signs. Humor is a great emotion that can also be a means to celebrate as well as reduce anxiety asso- ciated with air travel, whether it is simply the time factor associated with the fear of missing a flight, or the actual fear of flying itself. When used in a roadway environment, celebratory signs should not distract the driver, nor obstruct views of traffic control devices. Advertising is not allowed within public highway rights of way in accordance with Federal regulations. Outdoor advertising adjacent to the highway right of way is controlled by the Highway Beautification Act and is subject to State outdoor advertis- ing control programs and regulations, which each State is required to have.