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Terminal 149 Figure 6.57. Best color combinations used in lettering of outdoor advertising displays ranked in order of legibility of letters from a distance. Figure 6.57 illustrates the most legible color combinations. These illustrations can be used as a guide of color conspicuity and contrast. Airports and designers can leverage this knowledge to achieve superior legibility results. 6.6 Sign Locations, Data Bases, Illumination, Materials, and Safety 6.6.1 Sign Locations There have been several preceding sections that have touched on the importance of directional sign locations. This section will provide additional information starting with the basics. Good features of directional signs include the following: Consistency of highly visible suspended signs viewable from a great distance; Signs located in the center of the flow and not to the side; and Signs perpendicular, rather than parallel, to the flow.

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150 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside 6.6.1.1 Sign Frequency Philosophically the fewer signs the better because it helps simplify the wayfinding, reduce visual clutter, and it also helps reduce the cost of the sign system. However, a complex architectural space may require additional signs to compensate for the lack in a building's intuitive wayfinding design. Reasons for adding signs to account for other users include the following: In the concourse, not just those walking down it Coming out of restrooms Coming out of a concession area And especially those arriving on a flight that need confirmation of which way to go The goal is to be as consistent as possible and still use the same frequency because it is expected, especially for long corridors that may pass through visually busy graphic environments, then fur- ther down are not so busy. If there are no key decision points along a given route, research results indicate signs should be added to reassure the passenger they are still on the correct path. Con- sider placing these reassurance signs every 150 to 250 feet39. Mounting height. The airport architecture ultimately dictates the mounting height of the over- head directional signs so it is important to survey the varying conditions in order to determine a consistent mounting height for these sign types as well as identify exceptions such as low ceilings. The minimum height per ADA standards for overhead signs is 6-8 (Figure 6.58). However, this mounting height should only be used because of very low ceiling conditions. The survey of current airport practices indicates a recommended minimum height of 8-0. In large open architectural spaces with high ceilings, this height may extend up to 10-0 to the bottom of the sign. Regardless of the conditions, the primary consideration for mounting height of overhead signs is consistency. During the planning phase, take inventory of the existing conditions (or reference the reflected ceiling plans for new construction) to document the ceiling heights. Compare this information to establish a consistent sign mounting height as well as identify any exceptions that need to be accounted for. The process of determining a consistent sign mounting height should also establish dedicated zones for wayfinding information versus advertising, artwork, etc. Source: The Port Authority of NY & NJ Signing and Wayfinding Airport Standards Manual. Figure 6.58. The minimum height per ADA standards for overhead signs is 6'8 ", which should only be used because of very low ceiling conditions.

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Terminal 151 6.6.1.2 Information Zones--Other Graphic Elements and the Avoidance of Sign Clutter The goal to eliminate visual clutter in an airport can be achieved with a concerted effort to organize messages into fewer and more purposeful sign placement. Researchers note the chal- lenges of key wayfinding elements having to compete with other visual stimuli on several levels. Other than basic statements noting the need to establish visual access with clear sight lines, there is little documented research regarding sign placement in airport terminals. The information for this section draws from documented best practices and case studies. The following narrative and illustrations are representative. The first challenge is simply competing for space. Art and advertising are the more common sources competing for the same valuable space. The non-airline revenue generated by advertis- ing can make this competition for space even more adversarial. The other challenge is the visual onslaught that competes with the wayfinding for the passen- ger's attention. By establishing vertical and horizontal spaces that are clear of competing elements an airport can control the foreground and background by creating wayfinding information zones. The result is a more positive passenger wayfinding experience. Figures 6.59 and 6.60 show how this concept works by applying the wayfinding information zone inside the building envelope. 6.6.1.3 Wall-Mounted Signs While wall-mounted signs are subject to ADA guidelines, it is important to recognize the human factors that apply to the viewing angles. The mounting heights of the 95th and 5th percentile of men and women (95m, 5m, 95w, 5w) with respect to vertical sign location are demonstrated in Figure 6.61. The mounting heights shown (=10 from line of sight) represent the area that can be viewed without eye movement. The position of signing at 5-feet, 7-inches is within this mounting height for approximately 95% of the population. The signs that fall into this category are: restroom identification plaques, room (number) identification signs, elevator warning signs, door-mounted "do not enter" signs, and other regulatory and code required signs. Source: Mineta San Jose International Airport. Figure 6.59. Typical example from SJC of the X axis wayfinding information zone.

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152 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Source: Mineta San Jose International Airport. Figure 6.60. Typical view inside SJC. The mounting heights of a seated person and users in wheelchairs, with respect to the 10 viewing angle from the line of sight are demonstrated in Figure 6.62. Smaller identification, information and regulatory signs should be wall or door-mounted at an elevation between 5 and 6 feet. These show viewing ranges (10 from line of sight) that represent the area that can be viewed without eye movement. This data is accurate for approximately 95% of the population. All signs must conform to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). 6.6.2 Information Databases Creating an information database to manage an airport's wayfinding system is important to help perpetuate the value of the investment. A typical data base consists of the following three parts: Sign location plans--show where each sign is located either on site plan or architectural floor plan Message schedule--lists the message for each sign along with the signtype Signtype illustrations and or photos--indicates sign construction details and information Figure 6.61. The mounting heights of the 95th and 5th percentile of men and women with respect to vertical sign location.

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Terminal 153 Figure 6.62. The mounting heights of a seated person and users in wheelchairs, with respect to the 10 viewing angle from the line of sight. Creating an information database can require a substantial amount of time and effort. Whether an airport chooses to create their own database or work through an outside consultant, the first step is to understand how the airport uses data base information. Therefore, to make sure the air- port's resources are well utilized an airport must determine the following: What is the mission? Define what the data base will help accomplish. For example: Changes--Know which signs are impacted by an airline change. The list can include signs on the roadway, curbside and terminal Maintenance--Know which signs require regularly scheduled maintenance or inspection so work orders can be easily generated and tracked. Who will have access? This can be anyone from airport operations to airport planning. Who will be responsible for keeping the database up to date? Without a designated `gate- keeper' the data base will quickly become obsolete and the resources spent creating the data base will be lost. How does the airport track other systems and locate them either outside on the roadway or inside the terminal? How will the sign information be tracked for common-use space versus tenant spaces? Other key considerations: Incorporate graphic standards as part of the data base for easy reference for staff that has access. Develop the logic for the sign numbering system with a beginning and an end. In other words the sign location numbers continue from sheet to sheet to provide a unique sign number for each location. Consider adding a prefix or suffix to the sign location number to help indicate where the sign is on the airport. Include a logic for how new signs are added to the sign location plan and the message sched- ule. One method is to use the number of the closest sign and add a suffix. This symbiotic method of organizing the sign locations in a relative sequence will help later on when trying to locate the new sign number on a plan. Consider how the data base software can be tailored to address maintenance issues in a pro- active versus a reactive manner. This can include ticklers/reminders for scheduled mainte- nance or inspections that can help prolong the effective life cycle. It can also list specifications for lamping and ballast for servicing illuminated signs.

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154 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside A data base can include either an illustration or a photo of each sign with dimensions, mate- rials, colors, etc. A data base should include a key word search function to help facilitate message changes. Include a key plan on every sign location plan drawing A data base for the airport's sign system can be generated in either one of two ways. An exist- ing airport facility will require a physical inventory. A database for new construction can be gen- erated from the contractor's as built drawings. Both methods are valid means to create a sign system data base. The last point to consider is the most important and is worth repeating: how will the data base be maintained? It is a living, breathing document and an airport must make a realistic evalua- tion on what kind of commitment and resources can be made to keeping this data base up to date. Set a minimum standard for updating the data base regularly; a good target is annually. A cost effective method is using interns to inventory and update the data base. Another method is to implement an on-call service contract to update the data base. 6.6.3 Illumination A study by Carnegie Mellon University researchers emphasizes the key role that new lighting technologies--specifically LED technology--play in promoting energy efficiency and helping reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. "Technology and innovation in the area of lighting has quickly become a vital aspect of the broader movement toward increased energy efficiency and responsible use of global resources," said Granger Morgan, professor and head of the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EEP), and a member of the National Academy of Science. Another important note is that unlike the fluorescent tubes they replace, solid-state lighting is mercury-free. Lighting plays a vital role in the effectiveness of an airport's wayfinding system, but under- standing the options and determining what lighting solution will work best in a given airport is a challenge that requires a certain level of expertise. The process on how to evaluate an airport's needs and select the proper lighting for a given airport space begins with the basic decision of illuminated versus ambient light. There is little debate that internally illuminated directional and informational signs provide a higher level of visibility. This is supported by research that indicates passengers perceive a higher LOS at airports with internally illuminated signs. However, the literature did not provide any measured research with quantitative proof that passengers actually experienced an increase in wayfinding performance. Therefore, an airport must decide if the added expense of installing and maintaining an illu- minated sign system is justified as being a superior wayfinding system compared to a sign sys- tem that is not internally illuminated. Cost comparisons for illuminated signs include two factors--initial installation costs and the ongoing long-term cost. Depending on the actual sign design, an internally illuminated sign can cost 50% to 100% more than a comparable non-illuminated sign. In addition to the added cost of the light source, ballast, and transformers, the initial installation must also factor into the cost of the electrical service to each sign in order to understand the true total of the initial installation cost. The three basic types of illuminated signs are: Internal illumination of the entire sign face (Figure 6.63a). Internal illumination of the text only with an opaque sign background (Figure 6.63b). External illumination that washes the sign face (Figure 6.64).

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Terminal 155 Figure 6.63a. Internal illumination of Figure 6.63b. Internal illumination of text only. the entire face. Choosing either method of internal illumination will require special attention be given to the design of the sign face to facilitate future message changes. Other factors to consider when evaluating what type of lighting to use: The overall ambient light levels maintained inside the airport (daytime and nighttime). The maintenance and cost issues of making message changes to the sign face and how those costs are budgeted. Many airports successfully use the ambient lighting inside the airport to provide the necessary visibility for the wayfinding signs, which is an acceptable alternative (Figure 6.65). The benefits of using ambient light are: Lower front end cost to implement, Lower cost to maintain, and Typically easier and less expensive to make inevitable messaging changes. Regardless of what illumination method is used, the illumination levels on the sign surface shall be uniform over the sign surface. It is also important to consider the location of signs so they are located such that the illumination level on the surface of the sign is not significantly exceeded by the ambient light or visible bright lighting source behind or in front of the sign. Figure 6.64. Avoid glare that creates hotspots when using external illumination that washes the sign face.

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156 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 6.65. Examples of signs using ambient lighting. LED Lighting The following case study was developed in 2009 by the Salt Lake City Department of Airports as part of their internal evaluation process of comparing the costs of fluorescent versus LED internal illumination46. The process outlined in this case study is a good example for an airport to follow. 1. Set goals of LED sign lighting project for Salt Lake City International Airport a. Reduce operating costs by: i. Reducing energy consumption. ii. Reducing maintenance cost by reducing frequency of scheduled mainte- nance and also reducing damage to sign fixtures due to same reduction in maintenance frequency. iii. Eliminating toxic chemicals found in existing lighting thus saving money on expensive waste disposal. b. Improve sign visibility and legibility by: i. Using more even illumination with less hot spotting and more well defined text due to less light bleeding caused by existing light source 2. Product selection process a. Testing i. Construction of typical lighted sign boxes to be used in bench testing several different brands of LED lighting. ii. By installing each type of LED lighting in our test boxes instant side-by- side visual comparisons of light color were obtained. Using a common light meter the light output was measured for evenness of illumination. iii. Side-by-side comparisons also assessed ease of installation and material costs iv. Over a 6-month timeframe, periodic measurements were taken of light output to assess possible light loss, degradation of color, or other un- desirable anomalies. Power consumption was also measured.

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Terminal 157 b. Challenges i. Because of the fast paced evolution of the LED industry, there had been little testing at this time to come up with uniform standards for the LED lighting industry. This resulted in a lot of homework to evaluate the LED manufacturers. ii. Writing exacting specifications for the procurement process was also dif- ficult because of the lack of uniform measurements and testing in the industry, thus a lengthy bench testing became invaluable. iii. Illuminating double-faced signs without hot spots was difficult. The fur- ther you can place the face of the sign from the light source, the more even the illumination. The research at this time did not find LED lighting fixtures that had 360 degree illumination (similar to fluorescent tube). This resulted in mounting the LED fixtures on the top and bottom of the sign boxes and relying on reflected light to fill into the center. On boxes taller than 20 the center of the signs were unacceptably darker. c. Comparison analysis/metrics between existing and new LEDs i. Initial implementation costs: for 72 signs with existing fluorescent/$18,504. LED/$52,000 for 72 signs minus $12,000 for the local electrical utility rebates= total LED installation costs of $40,000. ii. Power savings of $36,292 during the LEDs 50,000 hour life span versus existing fluorescent. iii. Maintenance cost savings of $27,360 (estimated) over the 50,000 hour (warrantied) life span of LED lamps versus existing fluorescent. Fluorescent hazardous material recycling savings: $1,599 over the 50,000-hour life span of the LEDs. iv. Quality of light/Photometric: the LED lamps run 5,000 Kelvin. As of this writ- ing, the LED lamps have had less than 2% loss of lumen output. 3. Summary a. Findings: The findings are not considered conclusive as the new signs are only 1.5 years into the proposed 5.5 year life span of the LED lamps, however the 5,000 kelvin in the LEDs provide noticeably improved readability on our illu- minated signs (better text definition/less light bleedover, easier to read at dis- tance) than the existing 3,000 to 4,000 kelvin fluorescent. There is also a much smother illumination with far less hot spotting. b. Recommendations: Highly recommend finding a supplier/manufacturer with an experienced R&D staff close to your facility (if possible) that would be will- ing to help design the correct system for your application. Off the shelf prod- ucts can be difficult to make work in many retrofit applications. c. Lessons learned: Continued research for future LED lighting projects using double faced signs taller than 20, has developed (with the help of the local lighting supplier) an LED lamp with the same 360 degree illumination of the fluorescent tube, that will be used on the next lighting retrofit project. d. Ongoing methods for documenting metrics: Continue to take lumen read- ings on predetermined signs at the exact same face locations of the current LED signs to check for light degradation. After eighteen months into the war- ranty period there has been approximately 2 to 5% light loss with no visible color shift.

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158 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside 6.6.4 Materials The world has developed a conscience and sustainable design through the use of renewable and environmentally friendly materials, and this has become the new standard for the design industry. During the design phase, the materials and products being considered for the project: metals, woods, plastics, paints, adhesives are reviewed to see if they fit into a sustainable design philosophy. There is not one standard for evaluating the sustainable characteristics of all building materials. There are some tools that can be used, however, when selecting materials, at least in part, due to their sustainable characteristics. They include: National Institute of Standards and Technology Building for Economic and Environmental Sus- tainability (BEES). BEES measures the environmental performance of building products by using the environmental life-cycle assessment approach specified in ISO 14000 standards American Institute of Architects's (AIA) Environmental Resource Guide. This guide presents detailed life-cycle information about a number of building products. LEED Material Credits. The material credit requirements in the LEED Green Building Rating System address some of the key criteria for product selection. The following is a checklist for determining if a material is "green." Is the material: Low embodied energy, Recyclable, Renewable, Locally or regionally produced, Energy efficient, Low environmental impact, Durable, Minimizes waste, Positive social impact, and Affordable. Sign maintenance is addressed in Section 6.7, but it is worth noting here that combinations of the materials selected directly impact the time, effort, and cost associated with making changes that are inevitable. Therefore, review the process and expense involved to make message changes to either current or proposed materials. Evaluating a material, or comparing two materials to determine if the product(s) is a sound environmental product depends on the evaluation of a material's life cycle, often called the cradle-to-cradle analysis of a material. This process typically addresses the environmental impacts of the following: Resource acquisition. This includes addressing the environmental impacts of extracting the resources necessary to manufacture the product. Manufacturing. This includes evaluating the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process. Transporting. This includes considering the impacts of transporting the material to the man- ufacturing or assembly location, as well as transporting the material to the site. Installation. This includes considering the impact the installation of the product will have on the installer as well as any building occupants. Impact to Building Occupants. This includes evaluating what impact the product will have on occupants during its use. Performance. This includes considering how durable the product is, as well as what kind of maintenance requirements the product has. End of use options. This includes considering if the product can be disassembled, recycled, or reused.