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160 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 6.66. A large portion of the world uses the green field with a walking man with an arrow to denote "Emergency Exit." including clear update policies and scheduled maintenance reviews (quarterly, semi-annually, and annually). Clearly defined procedures will help address issues such as: Addition of a new airline, Airline relocation, Adding signs, Deleting signs, Temporary signs, and Directories, both electronic and static. Developing a quality Sign Standards Manual will be one of the best tools in managing consistent planning, design, installation, application, and maintenance of the sign system. As a minimum, the following represents a suggested sign maintenance procedure: Monthly visual inspections: check for burned out bulbs/lights, scratched sign cabinets, sign face damage, graffiti, structural damage, and non-standard signing due to signing updates. Quarterly sign cleaning: cleaning of exterior surfaces and support structures. Twice a year the interior of sign boxes/cabinets should be examined for build-up of dirt, dust, and other debris. Replacement parts such as extra bulbs, hardware, and mechanical fasteners should be on hand to provide quick fixes until complete repairs can be made if needed. Replacement and recycling/disposal procedures: determine how damaged or obsolete signs will be removed and where the unusable items will be discarded. Sign maintenance manual: a maintenance manual should be prepared for in-house information but can also be distributed to sign vendors to be aware of the airport's expectations for new signs. 6.8 Accessibility Accessibility issues in an airport setting extend beyond the terminal, but are consolidated in this section for an easy single point of reference. The information contained in this section is based on the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines and the Air Carrier Access Act.

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Terminal 161 6.8.1 Accessible Signing--Wayfinding for the Blind and Visually Impaired Wayfinding for the blind and visually impaired is a crucial area in the design of airport facilities. This section will review both the accessibility codes that must be followed in devel- oping a wayfinding program in an airport facility but also the technologies and other inno- vations that are being integrated into airport facilities. Finally this section will provide a road map for designers and managers looking to integrate accessible wayfinding into their facility plans. This section is meant to be utilized by designers and managers in three stages including: Managing Codes and Code Compliance Developing specific strategies for sign legibility for both the blind and visually impaired based on accessibility codes and best practices. Utilizing methodologies and new technologies to meet the needs of disabled travelers through- out the entire airport experience 6.8.1.1 Accessibility Analysis for Pedestrian Airport Wayfinding Figure 6.67 has been developed to help analyze the wayfinding experience from an accessi- bility perspective of getting to the gate as well as getting from the gate to ground transportation. The first column lists each step in the wayfinding experience. Column two lists the ADA requirement associated with each step of the experience. Column three addresses the legibility requirement. Column four lists any additional considerations associated with each step in the wayfinding experience. 6.8.1.2 Managing Codes and Code Compliance A number of different codes and guidelines determine how accessible wayfinding programs are to be developed. The two most prevalent are: The ADA and International Building Code: Passed in 1991 and was updated, and the new regulations were published in the Federal Register on September 15, 2010. These final rules took effect on March 15, 2011. The Americans with Disabilities Act provides a range of design issues that states must enforce in their building code. States also have the right to create their own accessible building codes, and most states have adopted more advanced accessibility codes developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Most international airports around the world utilize the accessibility section of the International Building Code (IBC) which parallels the ANSI. Specific legislation has also been developed to serve the needs of blind and visually impaired travelers including the Air Travelers Access Act. This legislation is not as prescrip- tive as building codes, allowing for a range of new innovations and methodologies to be applied. The first priority of designers and managers is to manage compliance of accessibility codes. This is made more complex by the way accessibility guidelines are legislated. States have the right to develop their own guidelines based on minimum standards from the Justice Department. For example, in California, signs follow a code that requires sign heights to be 60 from the floor to the center of the sign, which deviates from the new ANSI and International Building Code. The US Access Board and SEGD both offer up to date information on state by state building codes and current international guidelines. The guidelines are based on the 2008 ANSI, IBC and the ADA code that was approved in 2010. Twenty-six states representing 2/3 of the U.S. population are utilizing codes following these guidelines. It is important though that airports review the codes relevant to their state or locality.

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162 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 6.67. This matrix helps analyze the wayfinding experience from an accessibility perspective of getting to the gate as well as getting from the gate to ground transportation.

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Terminal 163 From the Gate Figure 6.67. (Continued).

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164 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside 6.8.1.3 Types of Visual Impairments To develop effective wayfinding standards, it is first important to understand the different needs of the blind and visually impaired. The sign standards for these two groups often conflict with each other in the wayfinding environment. These issues include: The needs of the blind. The blind navigate their environment utilizing their sense of touch either through their hands, feet, extension device like a cane, dog, or navigation device. The blind need wayfinding elements to be in close range to their body, tactile, and in consistent locations. This effort to provide consistency of location and information is both the common theme in accessibility codes and design innovations for the blind like rails and tactile floor surfaces. The needs of the visually impaired. The visually impaired make up a very large percentage of the population and cover a variety of impairments from color blindness to eye degradation from aging. The visually impaired utilize their eyes to navigate their environment, but need the assis- tance of larger and clearer visual elements that contrast with the surrounding environment. The needs of the blind and the visually impaired often conflict in building codes and often require different systems in airport environments. The needs of the mobility impaired. Mobility impairment covers a range of impairments including difficulty of movement and paralysis. Access for the mobility impaired includes hav- ing dynamic and interactive wayfinding elements in close visual proximity which often conflicts with the need for more visible signs. 6.8.1.4 Strategies for the Blind The ADA and by extension the ANSI and IBC has extensive and specific guidance for the blind. Keep in mind that this is just guidance based on the state, national, and international codes being utilized in most places. It is important to reference the code based on the specific airport juris- diction. These are the key issues that must be considered. What signs are covered. For the blind, only permanent identification signs must utilize Braille and tactile copy. In an airport environment this includes all restroom and terminal signs on con- courses as well as permanent office and meeting room space. Specific airline information and retail spaces are not considered permanent space. Directional signs are not included. Font selection and letter height. All tactile letters must be a minimum of 5/8 high and a maxi- mum of 2 high. 1/2 letter heights can be used if separate larger visual type is also included. Letter type. All raised letters must be sans serif and must have a maximum stroke width of 1/5 of the height of the letter using the height of the letter I for reference. Font and Braille location. All tactile letters and Braille must be a minimum of 3/8 away from any raised surface. See Figure 6.68 for approved fonts for the ADA. Figure 6.68. Approved fonts for the ADA.

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Terminal 165 Figure 6.69. Sign height diagram. Font and Braille height: Tactile letters must be no higher than 60 from the floor to the top of the raised letters. Braille must be below and no lower than 48 from the bottom of the Braille to the floor. Refer to Figure 6.69 for more details. Sign location. All signs must be located a specific distance away from single and double doors. Refer to Figure 6.70 for specific locations. Overhead signs and signs perpendicular to wall surfaces. All overhead signs and signs perpen- dicular to wall surfaces must be at least 70 off the floor surface and preferably a minimum of 84 . 6.8.1.5 Strategies for the Visually Impaired Developing wayfinding programs for the visually impaired is a combination of specific code requirements as well as best practices for legibility in the environment. The ADA and accessibil- ity codes cover the following issues. Single Door Double Door Double Door (Without Closer, One Active Leaf Two Active Leafs With Hold Open Device) C L 18" Clear Floor Space Single Push Door Single or Double Beyond the Arc of the (With Closer, Without Door with Adjacent Door Centered on Sign Hold Open Device) Wall Text Figure 6.70. Sign location diagram.

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166 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Specific signs types covered under the ADA, ANSI, and IBC. All directional and identification signs are covered including overhead signs and wall mounted directory signs. Dynamic signs and schedules must also be covered under these guidelines. Maps are not covered in accessibility codes but may be required in local fire codes. Color contrast. All letters and arrows must contrast with the background. A 70% light reflectance value (LRV) is recommended but not required. All signs must also have a matte non- glossy finish. Symbols. All identification symbols must be in a minimum 6-inch field even though they do not need to be a minimum of 6-inches in height. This is a requirement on identification signs and a recommendation on wayfinding signs. There is still an open discussion in different states about allowing smaller letter heights if large symbols are used in wayfinding signs. Chicago's O'Hare air- port by Carol Naughton and Associates, Figure 6.71, has led these trends with large symbols/small text on some of their major wayfinding signs. Text height. Text can be serif and any stroke width, but must be a minimum of 5/8 inches in height. Text height also increases based on the height off the floor and the distance viewing. This is important distance information particularly for dynamic scheduling signs (Figures 6.72 and 6.73). These signs must be no more than 6 feet away from the viewer to keep the 5/8 inches in letter height requirement. All overhead signs generally must have text at least 2 inches in height and often far larger text heights are required. 6.8.1.6 Best Practices for the Visually Impaired In addition to building codes, a number of best practices have been utilized in airport facilities for visually impaired that have been advised by a number of designers. These best practices include the use of highly-legible san serif fonts. Even though building codes do not require these fonts on wayfinding signs most airports utilize highly legible san serif fonts. The most prevalent of these fonts include Helvetica, Clearview, Futura, and Frutiger. These fonts were designed to meet the needs of an aging population by mitigating halation or the diminish- ment of visual clarity over time. These fonts have thin lines that have been successfully tested to be visible over great distances. Clutter reduction. A key to legibility in an airport environment is the reduction of clutter in key areas. This is especially important at airport facilities with low ceilings. Design firms advise that Figure 6.71. Example of large symbols used with smaller text.

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Terminal 167 Figure 6.72. ADAAG legibility chart. Figure 6.73. In the Minneapolis International Airport Sign System by Apple Design, multiple changes in ceiling height require different font heights to be used.

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168 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 6.74. T.F. Green Airport. extensive visual models and prototypes should be developed to ensure a minimum of clutter in the facility, as well as rigorous guidelines to keep visual clutter to a minimum. Clear guidelines are key to preventing the proliferation of visual clutter in airport environments, and airport sign managers should require that every new interior sign be reviewed based on guidelines governing clutter. Medium size airports like T.F. Green Airport in Providence (Figure 6.74) are notable for their efforts to manage clutter by creating layered viewing corridors for retail, wayfinding, gate and sup- port information. The use of landmarks. Visual cues and landmarks are important elements for directing airport users to specific locations and also cutting through the visual clutter. Toronto Pearson Airport (Fig- ure 6.75) uses landmarks extensively to break though the visual clutter of the complex spaces in the facility. Multiple languages. When multiple languages are used on a sign, it is important that the same standards of legibility are used for all languages. It is also important that multiple languages are dif- ferentiated on a sign like at Ottawa McDaniel Airport designed by Gottshalk and Ash (Figure 6.76). Typography strategy. Sign codes are specific about type height for various viewing distances for wayfinding signs but are unclear about how to measure viewing distances themselves. A basic strategy that has evolved is about basing legibility distance on two levels of wayfinding decision. Figure 6.75. Toronto Pearson International Airport.

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Terminal 169 Figure 6.76. Ottawa McDaniel Airport. Key destination information. Top destinations including Gates, Transportation and Baggage Claim often need priority at key decision points and in airports with long concourses often require font heights of 6 feet or more. Key decision points. In an airport environment key decision points should be read from at least 120 feet away. Under the accessibility codes this would require font heights to be a minimum of 4 feet. Assurance signs. These signs occur along pathways and are meant to assure the traveler that they are moving in the right direction. These signs need to be read from 90 feet or less giving them a minimum font height of 3 feet. At Newark Liberty International (Figure 6.77) a strategy for font sizes was based on destination hierarchy and key decision points, allowing for more legible signs throughout the airport. 6.8.1.7 The Mobility Impaired Codes oriented for wayfinding for the mobility impaired focus on the same issues that address the blind including the height of signs off the ground and the size of sign information. Most issues related to the mobility impaired are addressed in the Air Carrier Access Act which governs the support services of the airport facility as much as specific wayfinding legibility issues.

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170 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 6.77. Newark Liberty International. 6.8.1.8 ADA Symbols Symbols are among the most crucial aspects of developing airport wayfinding program. The ADA, ANSI and IBC cover the size and application of symbols as well as the use of specific acces- sibility symbols. Roger Whitehouse, working for the SEGD (Figure 6.78) developed this group of accessibility symbols that are mandated for use. Among the most important areas of guidance is the use of the international symbol of acces- sibility which is required to identify all accessible locations in a facility including restrooms and areas of refuge. Because the signs codes allow more than one symbol inside a 6-inch field, most identification signs in airports pair a smaller accessibility symbol with a larger identification sym- bol (Figure 6.79). 6.8.1.9 Dual Signs In an effort to resolve the sign standards between the blind and the visually impaired, the ADA, ANSI, and IBC allow for the use of dual signs or separate sign information for the blind and the visually impaired. The visual information can be any size and use a variety of fonts while tactile signs can be smaller with low color contrast. This is particularly important on airport signs because of the need for identification elements to be more legible from larger distances. Airports generally use two approaches when developing dual signs. Perpendicular and wall mounted signs. An overhead perpendicular sign can be coupled with a wall mounted tactile sign. Combined wall mounted sign. A large wall mounted sign containing both visual and tactile information. Figure 6.78. Accessibility symbols.

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Terminal 171 Figure 6.79. Symbol sign. Dual signs are needed particularly at restroom facilities at all airports regardless of size, but also for other support services, like gate information and telephone identification (Figure 6.80). 6.8.1.10 Deaf Users These users require special assistance to find facilities that service the deaf. Wayfinding for assistive listening devices and volume control telephones are usually handled by universal ADA symbols developed by Roger Whitehouse for SEGD. 6.8.1.11 The ADA and Dynamic Messages Technically the ADA does not cover temporary or variable messages yet, but the trend is mov- ing in the direction of utilizing the same regulations for visual dynamic media that applied to signs with permanent content. Key issues for dynamic media include the following: Accessibility: Having passenger arrival and departure information within close visual proxim- ity to travelers, either through scrolling signs, or larger font sizes. Contrast: All dynamic messages are recommended to have a contrast of at least 70%. At Hong Kong International Airport (Figure 6.81) redundant combinations of dynamic mes- sage signs are placed low to the ground for the mobility impaired and overhead with larger font sizes for the visually impaired. 6.8.1.12 New Approaches for Accessible Environments Research for wayfinding for the visually impaired in transit and other facilities has been exten- sive. For the visually impaired and blind, the Lighthouse for the Blind in New York has commis- sioned dozens of studies on best practices for wayfinding, identification, and map signs (Figure 6.82 provides one example of a map with raised pathways). The most well known was a study developed based on a wayfinding system for the blind developed by Roger Whitehouse for the Lighthouse itself 47. This study profiled a number of approaches to blind navigation including audible signs, maps, and trails.

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172 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 6.80. Dual signs at Minneapolis International Figure 6.81. Hong Kong International Airport. Airport. Figure 6.82. Tactile map with raised pathways, directions, and destinations developed by Eyecatch Signs.

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Terminal 173 Source: Coco Raynes Associates, Inc. Figure 6.83. Charles De Gaulle Airport. Currently auditory technology is being frequently employed in transportation facilities for the disabled including train and bus stations. In addition to the Lighthouse for the Blind, testing has been utilized for auditory devices in facilities by the U.S. Access Board and National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. Auditory technologies include push buttons, infrared transmitters, and cell phone based technologies. The newest system, tested at the Sloan Ketter- ing Institute for the Visually Impaired by James Coughlan, Roberto Manduchi, and Huiying Shen uses bar codes that can be read by cell phones. The most commonly used system in airports is the ClickAndGo Wayfinding Maps and Human Network Labs software. This software is avail- able on cell phones and PDA's and can be used by the blind through Braille converters. Airports can send map routes through specialized websites to be used with this system. Cell phones are also being used to deliver greater in-flight information to the blind through software created by companies like human network labs. Finally research has been developed for complete systems that use maps, rails, floor markings, and auditory information in a transportation environment like the integrated system developed by Coco Raynes at Charles De Gaulle Airport in Paris (see Figure 6.83). These trails connect ter- minal facilities inside of airports. Institutes that study architectural and integrated solutions include Universal Design at North Carolina State University (http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud) and the Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDEA). These institutes study the interplay of architectural and accessible environments. 6.8.1.13 Air Carrier Access Act--Overview and Recommendations Airports specifically have been given recent guidance on disabilities issues with the recently enacted Air Carrier Access Act. This act specifically puts the responsibility on the airport and the airline to provide assistance and access for the disabled from curbside to airplane. The best way

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174 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Wayfinding for the Visually Impaired Traveler San Jose International Airport is a fast growing national and international airport in the San Francisco Bay Corridor. Located in a state with among the most stringent accessibility enforcement criteria, the airport has developed a number of practices to ensure compliance with all state and federal codes as well as incorporating inno- vations into new additions and renovations to the airport environment. San Jose has been successful in the development and management of accessibility guidelines, by taking internal responsibility for many of the decisions governing accessible envi- ronments. The approach that the airport has developed includes: Development of a Compliance Strategy California's Title 24 differs markedly for national accessibility codes and the airport must respond to these differences through clear guidelines when working with the variety of outside design firms and contractors involved in projects. One important approach is to include Title 24 standards in the RFP process as well as in-house sign development procedures. In particular the airport closely monitors these specific areas as part of their compliance strategy: Sign Heights: Title 24 specifies that all signs must be positioned 60" from the center of the sign to the floor. This matches the current federal ADA guideline, but not cur- rent ANSI guidelines as well as state codes from a number of other states. The airport closely watches that this standard is met when working with multiple designers and fabricators developing sign programs in the facility. Specific Symbols and Braille: California uses specific symbols for restroom signs and Braille that are unique to the state. The airport ensures that it has guidelines and pro- cedures in place to ensure the use of these elements when new signs are being added and existing signs are changed. Enforcement: California has a specific permitting approach for developing new sign systems in facilities. The airport has developed specific procedures in concert with designers and fabricators to ensure that the permitting process is being followed. Legibility Strategy Unique to most airports, San Jose develops legibility guidelines in-house to allow for more control over the management of ongoing sign programs. These legibility guide- lines include standard governing destination hierarchy and font heights throughout the airport facility as well as guidelines governing the placement of signs to reduce clutter and standards for color contrast and lighting. By developing these rules in- house the requirements can change with the growth of the airport and the addition of new wayfinding, identification and retail signs. The most important elements of the airport's legibility strategy include: Font Height Strategy: Accessibility codes are ambiguous about determining the spe- cific font height to use at the airport. San Jose has created standards that govern spe- cific font heights based on location in the airport. Key decision points require signs with larger fonts of 5 or more inches in height while signs that provide assurance along corridors have smaller font heights of 3 to 5 inches.

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Terminal 175 Clutter Management: During the design development process the airport closely monitors the density of signs along key viewing corridors utilizing modeling soft- ware from the designer. Whenever new signs are put in place as part of ongoing sign management the airport includes criteria for placement that minimizes size clutter. Managing the Wayfinding Experience To meet the needs of the newly enacted Air Carriers Access Act, San Jose has devel- oped an experiential analysis approach based on interviews with the blind and visu- ally disabled as well as supporting views from consultants and advocates for the disabled. The prepared report charts the wayfinding experience for the disabled throughout the airport, providing recommendations at specific decision points. In developing their experiential analysis the airport began with a profile of the dis- abled traveler. This specific profile included the following information: There are no expectations when traveling, i.e., no system specifically for blind or visually impaired to help them navigate through the airport. Process for handling reservations: Informed the airline that he was traveling with a guide dog. Airline has to block a seat to make room for the dog. Prefers to take direct flights--do not want to change planes The travel experience Uses the Outreach service (on-call service through the local transportation agency) to get to his airline curb, then had family there to help him through the rest of the way. In two other trips, either a friend or a driver took him to the departure curb and led him to the door and the airline desk. Preparations for traveling with a guide dog. He does not water or feed his dog before the trip Dog cannot help in a crowded environment Other preparations for travel Typically does not go to the website. Usually calls the airline for information. So if there are physical changes, com- municate that to the airlines. After developing this profile the traveler was interviewed about issues specific to their wayfinding experience. Results include: The use of the handicapped drop-off curb Would not use it. Reserve it for the individual in a wheelchair. Likely rare to be blind and in a wheelchair and expect independence. Would not want to be dropped off in a central location. Just wants the direct door into the ticketing hall where his airline is. The use of tactile elements There are too many points of entry for tactile strips. Tactile strips could have a benefit if taxi driver stops right in front of the strip, and it is known as a clear path into the terminal. Tactile strip, over time, may get worn down due to constant passing of baggage on rollers.

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176 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside The traveler expectation from the curb Walk straight ahead from curb, through door to the counter Ask for assistance. No matter how independent the blind traveler is always conditioned to ask for assistance as soon as possible. Navigation through airport and security line Understands that airports are a fluid space. Has to ask for assistance. It is understood that the airline will walk the traveler all the way to the gate from the ticket counter. If using a security line, it is possible to follow the stanchions/crowd barrier tape. Arriving at other airport and return trip Airline will escort through baggage claim. Per the Air Carrier Access Act, the airline has to assist the traveler all the way through to the point of departing the airport such as taking him to a taxi or shuttle. Upon return to SJC, he will ask the airline to take him to the Outreach pickup curb He calls ahead and makes pickup reservation. There is a benefit of having the Outreach pickup curb include a sign with tactile (raised) text and Braille to confirm this destination. After concluding the profile and interview process, additional consultants were con- sulted about best practices for the blind and how to best comply with the provisions of the Air Carrier Access Act. Once these additional elements were in place the airport developed a set of specific recommendations to comply with the provisions of the act and meet the specific needs of the profiled travelers. for airports to respond to the Act is to map the experience of the disabled traveler from external transportation to the gate. These include the following areas: Parking--While the Air Carriers Act makes no provisions for assistance from parking, many airports require parking in short-term areas instead of curbside drop-off. In these situations it is important to provide clear easily marked safe areas where the traveler can wait for assistance. Transit--Taxi drivers and transit attendants can be trained to assist the blind in finding their way into airline terminals. In addition transit/airport junction points can become the most forward information centers with trained staff available. This approach has been used success- fully in large international airports with transit hubs like Chicago O'Hare airport and Boston Logan International Airport. Curbside Assistance--Karl Vidt, former member of the Airports ADA Advisory Committee has commented that assistance must begin at curbside. Even the best wayfinding systems for the blind at the arrivals and departures areas of the airport can be stymied by the large lines and crowds at a number of the airlines. This requires baggage handlers and other curbside per- sonnel to take responsibility when seeing a disabled person trying to enter the terminal. In addition some airports hire security guards and greeters that can also offer assistance. In addition there are tactile technologies that can assist the blind from curbside to check-in. One of the leading technologies utilized to direct the blind from curbside to check-ins are detectable warning systems including floor dots, domes, pavers and trails. These approaches are common in Europe and are starting to be seen near rail transportation and in airports (see Figure 6.84). From check-in to the gate: The Open Doors Organization (http://www.opendoorsnfp.org) has profiled a number of different training options the organization offers to assist the blind in airport facilities. Best Practices for these human centered approaches are also available through

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Terminal 177 Figure 6.84. Tactile technologies, such as floor dots, can assist the blind from curbside to check-in. Canadian Transportation Agency's new Code of Practice and Guide for Passenger Terminal Accessibility (www.cta.gc.ca). These training areas chart the wayfinding experience from road- way to terminal and include the following: Ticketing Assistance--Ticketing is the most crucial junction point for the blind. This is the point where the airline can offer assistance all the way to the gate. Training of ticket takers is the most important aspect of the Air Carrier Access Act, since it is the first entry point where the airline takes responsibility for the traveler. Security--Most security lines are already set up to handle the blind through multiple layers of security assistance and clear stanchion based lines. Attendants--Because of the Air Carrier Access Act airlines must have a person on call that can take a visitor from curbside, through security, and all the way to the gate. This requires pre-trip preparation on the part of the disabled visitor, but also a plan devised by the airport to connect the disabled traveler with the attendant including a call-in number and designated meeting spot. 6.8.1.14 Airport Challenges Airports are among the most difficult wayfinding environments for the blind and visually impaired with multiple layers of complexity. Airport sign managers and design firms advise that airports utilize the following approaches to ensure that the environment can remain at a high standard of accessibility: Develop an accessibility plan and audit: During the wayfinding design and development process it is important to have a separate audit that just focuses on accessibility issues. Have clear ongoing accessibility guidelines: After a project is complete these guidelines will serve as both instruction and training for airport employees and guidance for system mainte- nance and replacement. Develop an in-house expertise: Large airports should have one person responsible for manag- ing accessibility issues while small and medium size airports should have specific departmental responsibilities for accessibility.

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178 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Develop a resources list: This list of designers, code officials, organizations, and internal stake- holders can provide guidance on key issues and conflicts. 6.8.1.15 Accessibility Audit On an airport wayfinding project, it is important to develop an audit of elements that must be followed to make the facility accessible. The audit consists of two parts: Strategy and Doc- umentation: Strategy All accessibility strategies should consist of the following parts: Managing Compliance International, national and state codes. Utilize the International Building Code for projects outside the United States. This will cor- respond with the current ADA. List the top ADA national standards being followed at the state level regarding font, placement, and color. List ADA issues specific to the state that may diverge from national standards. List the provisions in the Air Carriers Access Act. Managing Legibility Develop a legibility plan consisting of the following elements: Font height based on distance in the facility. Color contrast and lighting contrast requirements. An approach to sign clutter. Symbol height based on distance and number of symbols being used. An approach for multiple languages. Managing the Experience Develop a narrative of the wayfinding experience. Write an accessibility narrative starting at the curb, and progressing to the gate, describing the specific issues and recommendations for each area in the wayfinding process. Develop a series of recommendations based on the needs of the blind, visually impaired and mobility impaired. Specifying Methodologies and Technologies Materials specifications. Name the specific modular system (if one is used) and accessibility issues associated with that system. Specify materials, the material approach, vendors/manufacturers (if necessary), and paint or additional materials being applied. Include specific accessibility technologies and methodologies. Directories and maps. Human assistance. Talking signs. Tactile floor surface. Documentation All accessibility documents for tactile signs for the blind should consist of the following parts: Sign placement. Distance of the sign from doors and entrances.

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Terminal 179 Figure 6.85. A sample of required documentations for accessible tactile signs developed by ASI. Height of perpendicular wall signs and overhead signs from the floor. Sign dimensions. Separation of fonts from Braille. Separation of font and Braille from the edge of the sign. Distance of the top and bottom of the font from floor. Fonts. Style. Height. Kerning. Specify Braille and distance of the Braille from the floor. Sign substrate and base material. Ensure all screws are flush if close to raised type. Show edging or rounding of materials. Show material and substrate thickness. Paint specification. Specify foreground and background color of materials. Specify matte finishing. Figure 6.85 is a sample of required documentations for accessible tactile signs.