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Roadways 35 dard. The process for these types of requests is detailed in Section 1A.10 of the MUTCD. A library of past interpretations and current experimentations is maintained by FHWA at their website7,8. A listing of additional related resources is available in Appendix E. 3.3 Airport Roadway Decision Points Airport roadways present a unique challenge for motorists, especially for infrequent travelers or those making their first trip to the airport. Motorists are faced with several decision points in close proximity to one another as they transition from adjacent freeways to the airport. These decision points may include the following: Exit ramp from freeway, Airline name/terminal listing, Split between roads leading to each terminal, Split between arrivals and departures, Split between curbside, parking and car rental, Split between short term and long term parking, and Return to terminal or exit airport property. In order for a driver to navigate to the intended destination safely, signs need to be conspicuous, legible, brief, understandable, and located a sufficient distance from the choice point (and each other) to allow enough time to detect, read, make a decision, and make the necessary lane changes. An airport operator should analyze the roadway system in order to identify these decision points. One way to do this is to create a matrix of likely trip purposes as shown in Figure 3.1 Roadway Type of User Trip Trip Trip Information Needs Name User Familiarity Purpose Origin Destination Which terminal is my Departing airline? Wright Passenger Park in Main Familiar Garage What are the parking Blvd. (local Garage Entrance options? resident) Where is the entrance to parking? Where is the rental Departing return? Passenger Return Main Where is the entrance Unfamiliar Rental Area (non- Rental Car Entrance to return? resident) Where is my specific car agency? Re-Entry Arrivals Taxi Familiar Pick-up Detours/Incidents Road Curbside Where is the Post Postal Drop off Wright Familiar Post Office Office? patron mail Blvd. Service How do I get there? Road Wright Employee Employee Familiar Work Detours/Incidents Blvd. Parking Where is the delivery area? Truck Food Main Loading Unfamiliar How do I get there? driver delivery Entrance Dock Are there height and Airfield weight restrictions? Dr. Is there a waiting Personal Pick-up Main Cell Phone area? Familiar Vehicle Passenger Entrance Waiting Area How do I get there? Figure 3.1. Example of trip purpose and travel path analysis.

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36 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 3.2. Example decision point and circulation flow diagram from the Mineta San Jose International Airport. (adapted from Hawkins, et al.9). Note that one roadway could be serving drivers with differing trip purposes and information needs. This table is for illustrative purposes only; each airport should consider its many users and paths through its facilities. The Mineta San Jose International Airport is one example of a facility which has conducted a thorough circulation analysis for both motorists and bicyclists10. Overlaid on this roadway dia- gram are circles indicating decision point locations at intersections and ramps (Figure 3.2). These circles, then, serve to flag areas where advance directional signing is needed. 3.3.1 Airport Exit Signs Signs leading drivers out of the airport are as important as those leading drivers in. As drivers exit the airport, decision points include the splits between remaining within the airport and exit- ing the airport from the terminal to major freeways or destinations (e.g., city downtown). Con- formance to the MUTCD is important as these signs begin to prepare drivers to enter state and local roads. The use of standard route markers and sign colors is especially important. Local jar- gon terms for routes should be avoided in favor of highway numbers that would appear on road- way maps. Key destinations, such as "Downtown" of "TO ," should be listed on exit signs, particularly in advance of lane splits (see Figure 3.3). On a national level, control Figure 3.3. MUTCD route numbers used on signs at DFW.