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54 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside facility. Many airport facilities offer short-term parking that is located closer to the terminal at a higher cost, and long-term parking further away from the terminal at a lower cost. Larger air- ports may also divide their parking facilities into sectors such as domestic and international departures in order to provide a closer connection with the appropriate areas of the adjacent ter- minal building. Some airports have as many as eight different parking options. Posting rates in advance of decision points can help drivers make an informed decision about where to park. The challenge is to do so without overloading the motorist with information. In addition, drivers need to know which parking areas are full and which have parking spots available. Within the parking facility, signs and pavement markings directing drivers need to be clear about the direc- tion of traffic (e.g., one-way only or two-way) and the direction to follow to find more parking or to find the exit. As pedestrians, parking users need to remember the level, aisle, and sometimes which garage or lot where they have left their vehicle. There are a number of memory aids that can assist parking lot users to remember where they parked their car. Different levels can be associated with different colors, images, and alphanumeric characters, and in addition each parking spot can be numbered with the hope that at least one of these memory aids will be remembered. In addition, as the use of automated payment stations--often referred to as pay-on-foot stations--proliferates at airports, it becomes necessary to remind patrons to take their parking tickets with them versus leaving them in their vehicle. Since the pay stations are often located at a consolidated location where pedestrians easily pass before returning to their vehicles, encour- aging patrons to keep their parking tickets with them is as much a customer service activity as it is informational to make exiting a parking facility more efficient. After leaving their parking spot, pedestrians need to be directed along a safe path to access points to the appropriate terminal entrance. Signs showing the pedestrian exit and terminal access have to be clearly distinguishable, by size, color, placement and design from signs intended for drivers. Crosswalks need to be well-marked using signs and pavement markings for both pedestrians and drivers. Pedestrians require similar guidance upon returning to the parking facility from the terminal. Method of payment, whether pay on foot or pay upon exit from the facility, must also be made clear. It may be necessary to remind patrons to pay for their parking at a pay station within the terminal (or some other location) before proceeding to their vehicles and exiting the parking facility. From the terminal building, they need to be guided to the appropriate sector of the parking facility, and crossing points with roadways need to be well- marked. Assistance phones to help drivers having difficulty finding their car should be well marked. 4.2 Signs and Wayfinding 4.2.1 Planning for Parking Signing A comprehensive signing program for parking encompasses the moment a person enters the airport grounds and can continue past the exit plazas. To provide an overview of the elements to consider when planning parking signing, Figure 4.1 represents a checklist to aid in the discussion. Additional thoughts for consideration: Use light as a wayfinding tool to highlight key destination points such as elevators and connec- tor bridge access points (Figure 4.2). Select sign colors that can be distinguished under different types of lighting conditions. Provide an adequate number of level and row markers throughout the garage.

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Parking 55 Area Items Airport Entry Naming of parking facilities/options - Impacts roadway signs (sizing, mounting structure, etc.) - Consider regional expectations (e.g., should you use "Long Term" or "Daily".) Parking rates - Aids decision-making Entry to Garage or lot identification Parking Parking status Facility - Basic: Open or Full - Detail: Number of spaces available and their location Parking regulations Towing policies and contact number Parking rates - Preferably post prior to entry with sufficient time/space to exit out of the parking entrance lane if driver elects not to park after seeing rates. Speed limit within parking facility Height restrictions/warnings Notice to watch for pedestrians Vehicular Directional signs to destinations Perspective - Park - Exit - Location - Materials - Message Symbols Parking Designations - No parking - Handicap parking - Reserved parking - Maximum 1-hour parking Mounting considerations Regulatory and traffic control Pedestrian Level/section/aisle identification Perspective Pay-on-foot messages Trailblazer directional signs to destinations - To terminal - To baggage claim - To stairs - To elevators Informational signs - Assistance/emergency call boxes - Automated External Defibrillators - No smoking Mounting/placement considerations Exit from Exit lane identification Parking - Cash only Facility - Credit only - Express exit Parking rates Directions after exiting - Return to terminal - Airport exit Figure 4.1. Parking signage checklist. Use the elevators as a touch point to reinforce where the user parked noting the color, level, zone, etc. Repeat parking level colors and themes inside the cab next to the call buttons. If themed icons are used as a memory aid they must all be unique in order to be memorable. Avoid using like categories as in each level is themed after a flower. The larger and more complex the garage is the more redundant the memory aids will need to be. Garages that park cars on the ramps will require special attention in determining where the levels change to avoid unnecessary confusion.

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56 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Photo credit: Chris Cunningham Figure 4.2. Effective use of lighting to call attention to key destinations like the elevators at TPA. 4.2.2 Communicating Parking Options To locate the parking facilities for the general public, use the word "PARKING." To identify specific parking lots, use the following terms: HOURLY--for short periods of time, less than 24 hours. DAILY--for periods of 24 hours or more. REMOTE/ECONOMY--for outlying daily lots, Park & Ride, etc. VALET--for assisted parking. METERED--for coin operated spaces. GARAGE--which can then be separated into Hourly or Daily, as appropriate. CELL PHONE LOT--for non-pay parking facilities where a driver is waiting for a phone call to pick up a passenger at the curbside. If parking lots or garages are related to multi-terminal complexes, other terminology may apply, such as: PARKING--TERMINAL 1 (or A), PARKING--TERMINAL 2 (or B), etc. The parking garage that serves multiple terminals may require a "CENTRAL GARAGE" designation. Alternate terminology for "Hourly" is "Short-Term," and for "Daily" is "Long-Term." The Identification and Evaluation of Guide Signing for Airport Roadways with Specific Application to Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport recommends these same terms, with slight exceptions29. 4.2.3 Connecting Parking and Terminals In most cases, the terminal is the primary destination for a person entering a parking facility. Depending on the distance of the parking facility from the terminal and the physical configura- tion of the parking facility and the terminal, a person will use one of the following methods to move to and from parking and airport terminals: Shuttle buses, Cross walks, Sky bridges, Elevators/escalators/stairs, and People mover systems. Signing to identify and direct patrons to these terminal-access locations must be presented to pedestrians, e.g., after a person has parked their vehicle and needs to proceed to a terminal. Signs