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Parking 57 must be consistent with color and other graphical elements used throughout the parking facility. In most cases, the only identification that should be provided is the phrase "To Terminal" (or "To Terminal 1," "To Terminal A," etc.) with the appropriate directional arrow. 4.3 Sign Categories The sign type family is the catalog of all directional, identification, and informational signing applications. It functions as a tool for programming signs and allows for a much more effective process. This section includes primary and secondary sign types for: Directional Signs--Signing designed to facilitate circulation to and/or from a specific park- ing facility. Identification Signs--Signing designed for identification of specific parking products or areas within parking facilities and pathways to terminals. Informational Signs--Signs or displays designed to convey airport information and services. Directories of floor plans, levels, terminals, airlines, gates information, etc. Regulatory Signs--Signs for traffic control, fire exits, stairs, parking reserved for people with disabilities, etc. 4.3.1 Directional This addresses the information process that enables passengers and visitors to select the proper path to meet their needs, when to determine a decision point, and where to identify specific ser- vices and various functional areas such as the location of parking pay stations. Directional signing is of greatest importance in airport parking facilities. All other signs are sub- ordinate. Proper directional signing is necessary because the rapid movement of vehicles, people, and particularly the passenger is essential for maximum utilization of the parking area. Success or failure of the operations and its signing is largely measured by the ease, speed, and comfort of going from parking to the terminal or the other way around. In addition to traditional signing considerations for the conventional passenger, directional signing is paramount to those persons arriving late for a flight, persons with disabilities, and non-English speaking passengers. Primary messages for vehicular directional signs are PARK and EXIT. Vehicular directional signs are typically placed above the lowest structural beam, which can create poor sight lines. On overhead directional signs, the message should be placed as close to the bottom of the sign panel as possible to improve the visibility by improving the sight lines, as shown in Figure 4.3. 4.3.1.1 Vehicular Viewer circulation patterns and natural lines of vision are the basis for determining the loca- tion of all signs. Signs shall be located to precede decision points to ensure sufficient time for vehicles to react to each sign message. Note the orientation of the arrows in regards to vehicular directional signing. When it is desired to have vehicles proceed in a straight direction, the arrow should be pointing down, sim- ilar to the orientation of arrows on roadway signs. In additional, the arrow on the sign should be Figure 4.3. On overhead directional signs, the message should be placed as close to the bottom of the sign panel as possible to improve the visibility by improving the sight lines.

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58 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside placed over the center of the drive aisle. Although it may seem counterintuitive on ramps that go physically up, the arrows over the travel lane should still point down to indicate the message to continue driving forward. Vehicular directional signs should be centered over the drive aisle and are larger and more visible than a pedestrian directional sign. Examples of parking arrows that illustrate the best practices for parking sign location are shown in Figure 4.4. 4.3.1.2 Pedestrian Viewer circulation patterns and natural lines of vision are the basis for determining the loca- tion of all signs. Signs shall be located to precede decision points to ensure sufficient time for passengers to react to each sign message. Contrary to the arrow orientation for vehicles, the arrow should point up on directional sign- ing for pedestrians when the need is to send people straight ahead. Yet similar to vehicular direc- tional arrows, it is helpful when the arrow is placed over the desired pedestrian pathway. Pedestrian directional signs should be placed adjacent to the drive aisles and are smaller than a vehicular directional sign to avoid competing for a driver's attention. 4.3.2 Identification Proper identification of the various parking products and destinations is essential to the cus- tomer experience. As the choices continue to expand, the task of remembering where you parked Figure 4.4. Examples of parking arrow applications. Source: Boston Logan International Airport "Signage Standards and Guidelines Volume 3--Parking," August 2005.

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Parking 59 becomes increasingly challenging. Identification signs also mark the location of items such as stairs, elevators, sky bridges to specific terminals, etc. 4.3.2.1 Toll Plaza Depending on the type of parking management system used by an airport and other operational preferences, signing near and at a toll plaza should be mounted overhead and highly visible. At an entry plaza, signing should clearly identify the parking facility being entered (e.g., daily, hourly, etc.). In addition, the fee schedule should be posted in a manner so that patrons can clearly see the effective charges for use of the facility. If it is not possible to post the rates in a leg- ible manner directly on the ticket issue machine (or card reader), then the fee schedule should be mounted adjacent to the equipment. It is not advisable to post other regulatory information near the entry equipment; this could reduce the efficiency of the entry plaza due to patrons attempting to read all the information and causing queues. Such regulatory signs could include information about the acceptance of liability for using the facility or similar information. At exit plazas, signing can be used to improve operations. By placing large signing above each lane of the exit plaza that clearly identifies what functions can be performed in that lane, this allows patrons to self-select where they need to go to complete their transaction. Not only should the sign indicate if a lane is "open" or "closed," it should also identify if the lane is "cash only," "cash & credit," or some form of a pre-paid "express lane." Using some form of changeable message dis- plays above each lane maximizes the operational flexibility of the exit plaza. 4.3.2.2 Payment Options It is becoming an increasingly common feature at airports that payment for parking is made prior to a patron returning to their vehicle within a parking facility. Such payment stations are most often placed so that patrons must pass one payment station, or a bank of payment stations, just prior to entering the parking facility. Be it at the end of a sky bridge, prior to exiting the ter- minal, at a shuttle bus shelter, or in an elevator lobby, signing should clearly identify the loca- tion of the pay stations. Since payment for parking is an operational function and not a regulatory one, more flexibil- ity is provided to airports in what the pay stations are called and what signing is provided. Some airports brand this type of payment and exiting option with terms such as "Express Pay" or "Pay- and-Go" and the associated signing is more in-line with advertisement with specific graphics and colors. Airports should still use the conventional and internationally accepted logos in conjunc- tion with these other forms of signing. With pay-on-foot operations, parking rates can be placed on a placard directly on the pay sta- tion, or displayed via a monitor incorporated into the pay station. Airports need to take into con- sideration ADA requirements with pay stations and provide equipment at the appropriate height and legibility. Even if pay stations are provided prior to exiting, it is desirable to post the parking rate sched- ule at the exit lanes. This reminds individuals what they should pay for the durations of their parking and to prepare their ticket for payment. This makes for a speedier exit, which increases the efficiency of the exit plaza. 4.3.3 Informational Informational signing has less importance than directional signing in parking facilities. These signs provide specific details such as: "You Are Here" maps, parking operation offices, special assistance, and similar types. The intent of these signs is to help individuals satisfy needs not

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60 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside directly related to finding a parking space, exiting the parking facility, or moving to the appro- priate terminal. Informational signs also address requirements issued by local, state, or federal agencies that must be posted and visible to the public. Examples of informational signing that should be posted include the following: No smoking signs, Towing enforcement policies and who to contact to retrieve vehicles, Required city/local regulations and laws, and ADA required signs. 4.3.3.1 Directories The primary objective of directories in airports is to provide the passenger with an overall ori- entation of the terminal, parking, and other facilities. Another objective of a directory is to help the movement of passengers to and from their destinations with ease and efficiency. In most cases, it is a supplement to the existing sign system. It is important that the individual needs of each specific airport be considered in the planning of directory information units. The development of directories can be a very expensive piece of the information system for airports. The effort required to determine accurate or representative graphic floor plans, space identification, symbols, color, text, supplemental information, enclosures, illumination, orien- tation architectural design compatibility, location, and overall implementation can be extensive as related to the overall cost of the individual units. Color coding systems, used on some map directories to key terminal and parking buildings or levels, have proven very effective for complicated terminals and parking structures, but if not care- fully done, color coding can make a basically simple terminal more confusing and complex. In most cases, simple, accurate line drawings of high quality may be the best solution for representing the floor plans. In addition, it has been proven more effective if the orientation of the map matches the actual orientation of the physical environment from the perspective of the user. In other words, always having the map oriented so that the top of the map is north may be highly confusing to the patron if this causes the map to be upside down compared to their actual surroundings. Care should be taken in reviewing directory construction details to ensure a flexible and cost- efficient method for changing diagrammatic maps and alphabetical indexes. Maintaining an aes- thetically acceptable appearance over the course of time is an equally important consideration in the directory unit design. 4.3.3.2 Flight Information Displays Flight Information Displays (FIDs) provide complete flight related information regarding arrivals and departures and are common features within the terminal at various locations. It is becoming more common to find FIDs within parking facilities. When a parking garage serves multiple terminals, locating an FID system within the garage itself at locations prior to actually accessing a terminal allows users to verify to which terminal and gate area they should proceed. On the garage-side of a sky bridge would be an example of a location where providing FIDs would be helpful to patrons. In addition, FIDs may be placed in remote parking facilities where shuttles, trams, or some other method transports users to terminals. FIDs would be especially helpful when the patron, for example, needs to select a specific shuttle or tram stop to go to a certain terminal. 4.3.3.3 Row/Level Markers and Other Visual Themes For parking garages, each level should be numbered from the ground level and up with explanatory terminology added for clarification, such as, for example, "Terminal Level."

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Parking 61 Aisle location signs need to be repeated sufficiently. For garages with lower ceilings, repeating the locator signing every two to four stalls may be required. In parking garages with higher ceiling clear- ances, placing locator information on the support columns is typically sufficient. In surface parking lots, mounting locator information on light poles is the most typical placement and also allows the signing to be placed higher which permits patrons to see them over the tops of almost all vehicles. Signs should also be located at the end of aisles and/or at the connection of an aisle to a walkway. Visual themes are elements that trigger a person to identify where they parked. The most basic memory devices used are numbers, letters, and colors. These memory devices can become more creative and site-specific by incorporating graphics. Some airports are even incorporating music and sound cues to further the cognitive links to a specific parking area. Regardless of the visual memory devices selected, they should also be repeated on directional maps, at elevator lobbies, and even on the buttons of the elevator to further reinforce the message. These identification systems are at the discretion of the airport and have a lot of flexibility. Prac- tically no regulations are in place that restrict how simple or elaborate the system can be. It is accepted, however, that simple colors, symbols, and graphics are more effective. It is highly rec- ommended that any identification scheme selected be tested within focus groups prior to the manufacturing and installation of signs. Consider schemes that provide images that are readily distinct and memorable. Avoid using images associated with a single category, where all the images are a type of flower, for instance. Figures 4.5 through 4.12 represent how memory aids can be deployed to help people remember where they parked. 4.3.4 Regulatory Regulatory signs relate to local, state, and federal requirements such as traffic signs, ADA items, and safety devices such as fire exits and automatic external defibrillators (AED). 4.3.4.1 Emergency/Assistance Call Box Location When an airport provides call boxes within the parking facilities, these should be clearly iden- tifiable to both drivers and pedestrians. The placement of the call boxes is critical, and signing Source: Naughton & Associates. Figure 4.5. Row and level markers with pedestrian trailblazer information that is sized appropriately to not be confusing to motorists.

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62 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Source: Naughton & Associates. Figure 4.6. Reminder on the glass doors to the elevator lobby. Source: Naughton & Associates. Figure 4.7. Reinforcement of graphic theme memory tool at elevators.

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Parking 63 Source: Naughton & Associates. Figure 4.8. Reminder cards and garage level information next to the call button plate. Source: Naughton & Associates. Figure 4.9. Reinforcement of graphic theme memory tool inlaid into the elevator lobby floor.

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Source: Naughton & Associates. Figure 4.10. The wayfinding experience is continued inside the elevator cab. This type of sign is important for persons looking for their vehicle. Photo credit: Chris Cunningham Figure 4.11. Examples of artwork used as a memory tool device at TPA. Figure 4.12. Example of inlaid floor graphic used to remind people where they parked at RIC.

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Parking 65 cannot overcome poor planning. The placement of a blue-light beacon on or adjacent to the call boxes is often used to supplement signing. Not only should signing be used to locate and identify call boxes, instructions should be placed so that a user can see how to use the call box, for example, if a code or telephone extension should be dialed to specific services such as police, fire, EMS, and vehicle assistance. Both the call box and instructions should comply with ADA regulations. 4.3.4.2 AED Location Depending on local and state requirements, it may be necessary to place AEDs in a parking facility. It is best to place AEDs in areas where people would instinctually look for them. Exam- ples of such locations include elevator lobbies, adjacent to emergency/assistance call boxes, and near FIDs or "You are here" locator maps. Signing for AED locations, again, may be regulated by local or state law. At the minimum, signing should be placed so that an individual can see either the location or directional signs to AEDs over the tops of vehicles. By placing AEDs near emergency/assistance call boxes, a flash- ing beacon can be used to further draw attention to these medical devices. 4.3.5 Unique Situations and Systems 4.3.5.1 Cell Phone Lots With the proliferation of mobile phones over the past decade, the concept of just-in-time deliv- ery has progressed to just-in-time passenger pick-up at airports. Now that people are able to receive real-time information on a flight's arrival status, the need to guess when a flight might land and find a parking place to wait until it does arrive is dissipating. Airports have developed special areas for people to wait short periods of time in their vehicles until their family, friends, or business asso- ciates contact them via cell phone to pick them up at the terminal curbside. In the 2009 Survey, more than 74% of the airports indicated they provide some form of cell phone parking lots. As previously mentioned, the terminology for these types of parking facilities varies and they are often branded by airports to encourage their use. Figure 4.13 illustrates some of the various signs used to identify this special type of parking area. Of 50 airports reviewed, over half of them had a cell phone lot. Of these airports, the name most often used is "cell phone lot." Figure 4.13. Examples of airport cell phone lot signage.

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66 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 4.14. An example of MUFIDs at Cell Phone Lots (Tampa International Airport). Because of their popularity and ability to de-congest terminal curbsides, some airports are providing dedicated information and amenities within the cell phone waiting areas. Flight infor- mation display boards, free wireless Internet, vending machines, and restrooms are the more common items. Figure 4.14 is an example of how FIDs at Cell Phone Lots provide current infor- mation to patrons. This encourages people to stay in the Cell Phone Lot and not circle the airport or congest terminal curbsides. 4.3.5.2 Advanced Parking Management Systems One area where more information is being provided is the introduction of changeable sign- ing and guidance systems within parking facilities to assist drivers in finding available parking spaces. The basic concept is that a series of sensors count vehicles as they enter and exit specified areas of a parking facility. These in/out counts are compared against the known number of park- ing spaces within each area whereby the number of vehicles parked in each zone can be calcu- lated. As areas become full, this information is conveyed to drivers via changeable signs and in-pavement markers so that they can bypass the full areas and proceed to areas with available parking. The areas can be defined at the macro level (the entire parking facility), or at the micro level (individual parking spaces). In the 2009 Airport Sign Managers Survey, 55% of airports responding indicate they use some form of electronic car counting. Some airports display this information to the public, while other airports use the car count information internally to make operational decisions such as to place cones or barricades to block off areas of a parking facility. There should be no more than four options lines on one roadway sign. If there are more than four parking options, the information should be separated. For example, the first sign could be daily and hourly parking, and the second economy and remote parking, in that sequence. Figures 4.15 through 4.19 show examples of various types of information being provided and where it is provided. London Heathrow International Airport deployed a system to take customer assistance to another level. Instead of merely helping people finding a parking space, Heathrow has a system in their Terminal 5 Parking Structure to assist with locating your vehicle after one's trip. Figure 4.20 is the graphic the British Airport Authority uses to explain how the technology works.

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Parking 67 Figure 4.15. Roadway sign providing information as to the availability of parking in each parking facility. The information is provided prior to the decision point where driver must travel (Reagan National Airport). Figure 4.16. A parking availability sign that is placed immediately after the access controlled entrance plaza indicating to drivers the number of parking spaces available on each floor of the parking structure (SEA-TAC Airport). Note: Although the signage is useful and located in the correct location, if the information displayed is not current and accurate, drivers will soon discredit the information and the signage becomes useless.

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68 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 4.17. Once inside the garage additional signs indicate the availability of parking within a particular area. In this case, areas are defined by groups of parking aisles. (SEA) Figure 4.18. The informational signage associated with a "space management system" that directs drivers to specific available parking spaces.