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Parking 69 Figure 4.19. Once inside the parking garage, the space management system uses a series of signs to indicate which areas have available parking. Then sensors located above each parking space use red and green indicator lights to inform drivers if a particular space is occupied or not. These Advanced Parking Management Systems (APMS) are gaining popularity at airports and collective guidance has been provided by the Federal Highway Administration regarding APMS65. This document is informative in the topics of describing the state-of-the-practice, recommenda- tions for planning APMS, and other implementation items. The guidebook generally discusses sign- ing but does not provide specific details regarding sign content, form or placement. In fact, specifics and recommendations on signing associated with APMS are often suggested by vendors providing the APMS. 4.4 Sign Design Elements The 2009 MUTCD contains information regarding signs and pavement markings in the pub- lic drive aisles of parking facilities. Although the 2009 MUTCD does not specifically address Figure 4.20. An explanation as to how technology is used to aid patrons in finding available parking and locating their vehicles at a later time.

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70 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside parking spaces, entry plazas, and exit plazas to the extent possible parking facilities as a whole should follow the MUTCD. (Note: there is a MUTCD task force that is specifically examining parking facilities and how and when the MUTCD should be applied in these areas). Some airports have developed their own sign standards for their respective facilities for con- sistency, continuity, and identity. Boston Logan, DFW, Miami, Frankfurt, and Hong Kong inter- national airports are a few examples where airport-specific signing design standards and guides are implemented30. These guidelines take into account specific location, architecture, codes, lan- guages, demographics, etc., that apply to their airport but may not necessarily translate to other airports because of these exact considerations. As mentioned previously, regulatory signs are typically designed to most closely resemble the guidance within the MUTCD than are other sign types within parking facilities. This may be attributed to local code requirements, but mostly because reasonable and prudent people easily recognize and quickly interpret their meaning. It is the placement and mounting of regulatory signs that are modified to meet the physical restrictions of a parking area such as ceiling heights/ clearance within a parking garage. 4.4.1 Terminology One of the more confusing aspects for drivers to airports is understanding the different park- ing options provided and the availability of parking within each option; especially when a single airport may provide seven or eight different parking choices. Terminology describing these options is not universal and adds to the confusion. See Section 4.2.2 for a list of recommended parking terminology. The following is a list of some of the wording used to describe parking areas at airports: Daily Parking vs. Long Term Parking Hourly Parking vs. Short Term Parking Economy Parking vs. Express Parking Cell Phone Lot vs. Park and Wait Area Terminal Parking vs. Remote Parking Garage Parking vs. Surface Parking Valet Parking vs. VIP Parking vs. Concierge Parking 4.4.2 Symbology Symbols should be used to reinforce and provide visual confirmation of sign messages. Sec- tion 6.5.2 contains symbol families currently in use at major airports. A blue background with a white capital "P" is universally understood as a sign indicating a parking area even if the appearance of that sign varies slightly (see Figure 4.21). Whether from a driver's viewpoint or as a pedestrian, identifying and following these signs directs an individual to a parking facility. Symbol shape, placement, and color on all pedestrian and vehicular regulatory signs shall con- form to the latest edition of the MUTCD and local requirements. 4.4.3 Typography While the argument continues to rage about whether sans serifs are easier to read than serif fonts, the sans serif typefaces, because their letter shapes are simpler, have been proven to be slightly more legible than their serifed cousins. Reference Section 6.5.3 for additional informa- tion on typography.

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Parking 71 Figure 4.21. Forms of the customary parking sign. For wayfinding messages, text using upper and lowercase letters with initial caps is easier to read than all uppercase lettering. 4.4.4 Arrows The placement of arrows on sign faces should conform to a uniform standard. The following guidelines are suggested for the placement of arrows: General Arrow Placement: Arrows should never point into text Left-facing arrows should be located toward the left side of signs Right-facing arrows should be located toward the right side of signs Forward-facing and/or downward-facing arrows are typically located close to the flow of traf- fic. Refer to previous discussion on which direction arrows should face for vehicle traffic ver- sus pedestrian traffic. General Text Alignment with Arrows: Left-facing arrows require left justified text Right-facing arrows require right justified text Forward-facing and/or downward-facing arrows require text to be justified closest to the flow of traffic (e.g., if forward traffic is hugging the right side of a corridor, the arrow should be on the right side of the face with the text justified right, and vice versa). Reference Section 6.5.4 for additional information on arrows. 4.4.5 Color In order to maintain a visually unified system of signs airport-wide, the application of color must be consistent on every element of all signing. The guidance for colors within the MUTCD