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74 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside 4.6 Sign Maintenance One of the myths of wayfinding is that once a new wayfinding system is implemented the work is done. This is a false assumption. Airports are dynamic environments that are constantly chang- ing. In order to perpetuate the integrity of the wayfinding program a systematic maintenance program must be implemented as an integral part of standard airport operations. A strategic maintenance program is the key to perpetuating a well-planned wayfinding pro- gram. Standard procedures should be in place to address the impact of changes to airport operations, including clear update policies and scheduled maintenance reviews (quarterly, semi-annually and annually). Clearly defined procedures will help address issues such as the following: Addition of a new parking facility, Re-designation or re-configuring a parking facility, Adding signs, Deleting signs, Temporary signs, and Directories, both electronic and static. Developing a quality Sign Standards Manual will be one of the best tools in managing consis- tent planning, design, installation, application, and maintenance of the sign system. As a minimum, the following represents a suggested sign maintenance procedure: Monthly visual inspections: check for burned out bulbs/lights, scratched sign cabinets, sign face damage, graffiti, structural damage, and non-standard signing due to signing updates. Quarterly sign cleaning: cleaning of exterior surfaces and support structures. Twice a year the interior of sign boxes/cabinets should be examined for build-up of dirt, dust, and other debris. Replacement parts: items such as extra bulbs, hardware, and mechanical fasteners should be on hand to provide quick fixes until complete repairs can be made if needed. Replacement and recycling/disposal procedures: determine how damaged or obsolete signs will be removed and where the unusable items will be discarded. Sign maintenance manual: a maintenance manual should be prepared for in-house informa- tion but can also be distributed to sign vendors to be aware of the airport's expectations for new signs. 4.7 Accessibility Airports are among the most difficult wayfinding environments for people with disabilities due to the multiple layers of complexity. Airport sign managers and design firms advise that air- ports utilize the following approaches to ensure that the environment can remain at a high stan- dard of accessibility: Develop an accessibility plan and audit: During the wayfinding design and development process, it is important to have a separate audit that just focuses on accessibility issues. Have clear ongoing accessibility guidelines: After a project is complete these guidelines will serve as both instruction and training for airport employees and guidance for system mainte- nance and replacement. Develop an in-house expertise: Large airports should have one person responsible for man- aging accessibility issues while small and medium size airports should have specific depart- mental responsibilities for accessibility.

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Parking 75 Develop a resources list: This list of designers, code officials, organizations, and internal stake- holders can provide guidance on key issues and conflicts. 4.7.1 Audit of Elements On an airport wayfinding project, it is important to develop an audit of elements that must be fol- lowed to make the facility accessible. The audit consists of two parts: Strategy and Documentation. 4.7.1.1 Strategy All accessibility strategies should consist of the following parts: Managing Compliance--Utilize International, National, and State codes by doing the following: Utilize the International Building Code for projects outside the United States. This will cor- respond with the current ADA. List the top ADA national standards being followed at the state level regarding font, place- ment, and color. List ADA issues specific to the state that may diverge from national standards. List the provisions in the Air Carriers Access Act. Managing Legibility--Develop a legibility plan consisting of the following elements: Font height based on distance in the facility. Color contrast and lighting contrast requirements. An approach to sign clutter. Symbol height based on distance and number of symbols being used. Managing the Experience--Develop a narrative of the wayfinding experience by doing the following: Write an accessibility narrative starting at the curb, and progressing to the gate describing the specific issues and recommendations for each area in the wayfinding process. Develop a series of recommendations based on the needs of the sensory impaired and mobility impaired. Specifying Methodologies and Technologies--Specify materials by doing the following: Name the specific modular system (if one is used) and accessibility issues associated with that system. Specify materials, the material approach, vendors/manufacturers (if necessary), and paint or additional materials being applied. Directories and maps. Human assistance. Talking signs. Tactile floor surfaces. 4.7.1.2 Documentation All accessibility documents for tactile signs for the visually impaired should consist of the fol- lowing parts: Sign Placement: Distance of the sign from doors and entrances and Height of perpendicular wall signs and overhead signs from the floor. Sign Dimensions: Separation of fonts from Braille, Separation of font and Braille from the edge of the sign, and Distance of the top and bottom of the font from floor.

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76 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Fonts: Style, Height, and Kerning. Sign substrate and base material: Specify Braille and distance of the Braille from the floor, Ensure all screws are flush if close to raised type, Show edging or rounding of materials, and Show material and substrate thickness. Paint specification: Specify foreground and background color of materials and Specify matte finishing.