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Curbside and Ground Transportation 79 Photo credit: Chris Cunningham. Figure 5.3. The use of raised islands and curbs separates vehicular and pedestrian activities on the arrivals curbside for efficiency and pedestrian safety (Richmond International Airport). 5.3 Signing Areas Airport terminals with a single-level curbside will typically assign designated ticketing and bag- gage claim areas along the curb for passenger drop-off and pick-up. In North America, the terms "departures" and "arrivals" are commonly used to differentiate the primary functions along the curbside. In some instances, the terms "Passenger Drop-Off" and "Passenger Pick-Up" are used to designate the different functions but this is more common terminology at smaller airports with a single-level terminal. It is best to use the more universal terms "Arrivals" and "Departures." Terminology for other items is often influenced by operational decisions and physical factors. For example, areas used by courtesy vehicles operations may be combined into a category called "Shuttles"; however, these may be broken out into "Hotel Shuttles," "Rental Car Shuttles," and "Airport Shuttles" at another airport. The term "Shuttles" or "Ground Transportation" should be used to guide patrons to the general area of ground transportation vehicles, and then more specific functions can be called out (e.g., "Hotel Shuttles" and "Rental Car Shuttles") once the person has arrived at the ground transportation area. 5.3.1 Departures 5.3.1.1 Terminal Identification At airports with larger facilities, how the terminals and access roads are designed plays a signifi- cant part as to what signing becomes necessary. For departures, identifying terminals and airlines are the most important bits of information. At airports with multiple terminals, the designation of the terminal is often placed on the building itself as in Figure 5.4. The terminal designation should also be repeated along the curbside to reassure drivers they are at the proper location. An example of this type of information reinforcement is shown in Figure 5.5. Regardless of the sit- uation, having appropriate roadway signing with re-enforcing curbside signing will help direct users to the appropriate areas. 5.3.1.2 Airline Identification For airports with multiple airlines across multiple terminals, signs on the airport access road- ways already provide information to help direct users to the right location for departures. As

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80 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 5.4. Terminal designation placed on the structure. drivers approach the terminal curbside, additional signing should be provided to assist patrons to locate the air carrier of their choice. These signs are typically static and use the airline's name to designate their location. In some instances, the air carrier's logo is also used to visually re- inforce the message but is secondary information and can be displayed only if the logo does not otherwise cause the airline's name to be truncated, have reduced letter height, or condensed let- ter spacing just to accommodate the logo. Figure 5.6 shows one installation where the airline identifier signs are placed in a highly visible manner for vehicles and pedestrians. The text of the signs is sufficiently sized to maximize legibility from a greater distance. The airline name as presented on roadway signing should be used on the airline identification sign. For example, if "Continental Airlines" is present on the roadway signs then the same should be placed on the airline identification sign. In some instances, the airline identification sign may be shortened to "Continental" if geometric and/or architectural considerations make necessary. It is not advised to abbreviate the airline name to "Cont.," "Cont'l.," or some other variation. Code share airlines may be listed together if the ticketing desks inside the terminal are adjacent to one another; otherwise, list the airlines separately. It is best practice to define an airline nam- ing convention that will be used throughout the airport complex and be consistent with that pol- icy. Although airline identification at the curbside is mostly static, some airports and airlines are using different types of technology to provide this information. Changeable message signs by the entrances to the terminal are now beginning to be used to indicate what airlines are located where. Both changeable message signs and static signs may be larger than typical directional signs to allow increased text size for visibility from a greater distance. A minimum text height of 8 let- ter for airline names should be practiced. The minimum letter height permitted by the MUTCD Figure 5.5. Using terminal designations on other curbside signage to reinforce terminal identification.

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Curbside and Ground Transportation 81 Figure 5.6. Example of airline identifier signs with multiple carriers per sign (SeaTac International Airport). is 6-inch tall text for post-mounted static signs in environments at or below 40 mph as shown in Table 2D-2 in the 2009 MUTCD8. For dynamic message signs, a 12-inch text height is specified in Section 2L.04 of the MUTCD8. Further details on the signs and design elements are provided in Section 6.5. Airline identity signs should be located near or above the doors or entrance into the buildings. The airline(s) listed above the entry should correspond with the location of the check-in coun- ters located nearest the door inside the building. The identification signs should be mounted per- pendicular to the terminal building and the roadway. The airline names should be placed on both sides of the sign for several reasons: A vehicle may pull up to the curb past the location of their airline and the disembarking passenger needs to be able to look back and identify their airline. Pedestrians may be walking to the terminal from a parking garage or the ground transportation drop-off areas that require them to approach the terminal from a direction that is opposite the direction of traffic.

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82 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Figure 5.7. Basic curbside baggage check-in. 5.3.1.3 Flight Information FIDs are not widely used along the curbside. For one reason, airports do not want unneces- sary congestion on the sidewalks caused by people standing around with their baggage looking for their flight on a monitor. FIDs are more commonly used where there is space and time for people to examine flight information such as terminals, parking facilities, rental car centers, and transit stations. In addition, the weather in some locales makes it problematic to operate and maintain certain technologies in an outdoor environment. 5.3.1.4 Curbside Check-In Curbside baggage check-in is a traditional service many airlines provide at various airports. These areas are staffed by airline employees and typically only handle passengers with larger or multiple pieces of luggage that cannot be carried onto the airplane. Curbside baggage check-in can be a simple counter as shown in Figure 5.7 or a larger, more permanent area with a greater amount of signing as shown in Figure 5.8. When baggage check-in is provided along the departures curbside, additional signing must be provided. This signing is typically regulatory and informational such as the following: Security advisories and instructions, Municipal/federal regulations, and Airline baggage policies. Figure 5.8. Permanent curbside baggage check-in at a larger airport.