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88 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside 5.5.5 Color In order to maintain a visually unified system of signs airport-wide, the application of color must be consistent on every element of all signing. Care should be taken, however, to avoid con- tradiction with standard colors for regulatory signs. Green stop signs and blue no parking signs are not immediately recognized. The MUTCD shall be referenced for colors on regulatory signs. In other situations, colors should be distinct enough to reinforce the idea of different items. For example, using "orange" to identify Terminal A and "purple" to designate Terminal B is easily recognizable by a large portion of the population. The difference between "teal" and "turquoise" may be indistinguishable. Reference Section 6.5.5 for additional information on color. 5.6 Sign Locations, Structures, Materials, and Safety 5.6.1 Sign Locations Because every terminal and associated curbside has a unique location, architecture, configu- ration, and geometry, it is difficult to prepare generic signing plans and recommendations. Viewer circulation patterns and natural lines of vision are the basis for determining the location of all signs. Signs shall be located to precede decision points to ensure sufficient time for people to react to each sign message. Signs for vehicular traffic should typically be placed perpendicular to the path of travel. Signs focused on pedestrian needs should typically be separated visually from the vehicular signs. Signs that are for the benefit of pedestrians can be suspended from canopies/awnings or mounted from the terminal building itself. The idea is to place pedestrian signing in the location where only pedestrians will be circulating. Sign Frequency and Avoidance of Sign Clutter Directional signing should be located at decisions points and used as confirmational signs if appropriate. In some cases, the frequency in which a sign must be placed is dictated by local ordi- nance. Such signs may include "no parking" and "no loitering." Identification signs should only be placed at or near the actual location of the place that is being referenced. The concept of "less may be more" is very true regarding signs along the curb- side. It can be a temptation to use signing to quickly address an issue (or complaint) without considering the impact to the overall signing scheme. Signing should be used primarily to direct traffic/pedestrians and identify items along the curbside. Signing prior to decision points is nec- essary and the identification of terminals and airlines is paramount. In addition, certain regula- tory signs are required by various laws and ordinances. Airport sign managers should layout the placement of signs to accommodate those functions first. The need for secondary signing can then be considered and added if it does not deteriorate the purpose of the primary messages. It is very tempting for airports to place--or permit others to place--advertisement along curbsides as a way to generate revenue. It is highly recommended that signage not be placed on the curbside that does not relate to the function of the curbside. There is too much activity along the curbside where distractions to drivers and pedestrians should be kept to a minimum. Mar- keting and advertisement signage may be placed within the terminals, elevator lobbies, and other locations that are consistent with this guide book. 5.6.2 Illumination Options for Night-Time Visibility Because the ambient light levels along curbsides in most major airports can vary (from termi- nal buildings, roadways, and landscaping) it may be necessary to use external or internal illumi-

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Curbside and Ground Transportation 89 nation to provide adequate nighttime visibility for curbside and ground transportation signs so that they compete equally. At smaller airports or on the outlying areas of larger airports, with lower ambient light levels, high quality retroreflective materials may provide adequate visibili- ties. Nighttime testing on-site will be required to make these determinations. The lower level(s) of curbsides that are split vertically are typically darker in both day and nighttime conditions. Therefore, to ensure adequate illumination of signing on lower level curb- sides requires special consideration during the planning and design phases. Retroreflection Retroreflective sign sheeting materials return light from vehicle headlamps to the driver's eyes. Retroreflection is achieved either through microscopic glass beads with a thin metallic backing or through microprisms in a thin polycarbonate film. These materials vary in the daytime color appearance and in their nighttime brightness and efficiency with which they reflect the vehicle headlamps. In some airports, the geometry of the curbside is such that considerable care must be taken by the designer in sign location and orientation to ensure that vehicle headlamps will adequately illuminate the sign along the necessary driving sections. The use of high quality retroreflective sheeting in place of external illumination may also help airports reduce electricity and maintenance costs and reach sustainability goals. If this material is used, the sign panels should be angled 58 degrees towards the driver. External Illumination (Ambient Light) External illumination of signs along a terminal curbside may be achievable by the ambient lighting in and around the terminal. If additional lighting is needed for signing, it is recom- mended to use internally illuminated signs rather than externally illuminated signs in the curb- side environments. This is to reduce the amount of electrical infrastructure required to support external illumination and to eliminate head clearance issues if ceiling heights are already reduced. Internal Illumination Internally illuminated signs can be designed to provide sign recognition and legibility dis- tances comparable to those of externally illuminated. Proper materials and design must be used for the specific viewing angles present for a specific sign location. Candidate sign materials should be viewed in daylight and dusk conditions to ensure that there is adequate contrast when the sign is not lit. With internally illuminated signs, it is important to understand that the size of the sign does not relate to the size of the text. Appropriate negative space around the text of the sign as well as the sign frame must be taken into consideration when sizing and ordering internally illuminated sign boxes. 5.6.3 Structures and Mounting The following list includes the types of general sign mounting frequently found along curbsides: Overhead Suspended--typically applicable to the lower level curbside conditions, these signs are suspended from the ceiling using a cable or break-away fastening system. Soffit Mount--signs that are located on an architectural soffit or wall, and mounted with the back of the sign to the soffit or wall using a mechanical fastening system. Ceiling Mount--typically applicable to the lower level curbside conditions, these signs are located flush to the ceiling and mounted with the top of the sign to the ceiling using a mechan- ical fastening system.