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Curbside and Ground Transportation 91 Developing a quality Sign Standards Manual will be one of the best tools in managing consis- tent planning, design, installation, application and maintenance of the sign system. As a minimum, the following represents a suggested sign maintenance procedure: Monthly visual inspections: check for burned out bulbs/lights, scratched sign cabinets, sign face damage, graffiti, structural damage, and non-standard signing due to signing updates. Quarterly sign cleaning: cleaning of exterior surfaces and support structures. Twice a year the interior of sign boxes/cabinets should be examined for build-up of dirt, dust, and other debris. Replacement parts such as extra bulbs, hardware, and mechanical fasteners should be on hand to provide quick fixes until complete repairs can be made if needed. Replacement and recycling/disposal procedures: determine how damaged or obsolete signs will be removed and where the unusable items will be discarded. Sign maintenance manual: a maintenance manual should be prepared for in-house infor- mation but can also be distributed to sign vendors to be aware of the airport's expectations for new signs. 5.8 Accessibility Airports are among the most difficult wayfinding environments for people with disabilities due to the multiple layers of complexity. Airport sign managers and design firms advise that air- ports utilize the following approaches to ensure that the environment can remain at a high stan- dard of accessibility: Develop an accessibility plan and audit: During the wayfinding design and development process it is important to have a separate audit that just focuses on accessibility issues. Have clear ongoing accessibility guidelines: After a project is complete these guidelines will serve as both instruction and training for airport employees and guidance for system mainte- nance and replacement. Develop an in-house expertise: Large airports should have one person responsible for manag- ing accessibility issues while small and medium size airports should have specific departmental responsibilities for accessibility. Develop a resources list: This list of designers, code officials, organizations, and internal stake- holders can provide guidance on key issues and conflicts. 5.8.1 Accessibility Audit On an airport wayfinding project it is important to develop an audit of elements that must be fol- lowed to make the facility accessible. The audit consists of two parts: Strategy and Documentation. 5.8.1.1 Strategy All accessibility strategies should consist of the following parts. Managing Compliance International, National and State codes: Utilize the International Building Code for projects outside the United States. This will cor- respond with the current ADA. List the top ADA national standards being followed at the state level regarding font, place- ment, and color. List ADA issues specific to the state that may diverge from national standards. List the provisions in the Air Carriers Access Act.

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92 Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside Managing Legibility Develop a legibility plan consisting of the following elements: Font height based on distance in the facility. Color contrast and lighting contrast requirements. An approach to sign clutter. Symbol height based on distance and number of symbols being used. An approach for multiple languages. Managing the Experience Develop a narrative of the wayfinding experience: Write an accessibility narrative starting at the curb, and progressing to the gate describing the specific issues and recommendations for each area in the wayfinding process. Develop a series of recommendations based on the needs of people with sensory impairment and those with mobility impairment. Specify Methodologies and Technologies Materials specifications: Name the specific modular system (if one is used) and accessibility issues associated with that system. Specify materials, the material approach, vendors/manufacturers (if necessary), and paint or additional materials being applied. Directories and maps. Human assistance. Talking signs. Tactile floor surfaces. 5.8.1.2 Documentation All accessibility documents for tactile signs for people with visual impairment should consist of the following parts. Sign placement Distance of the sign from doors and entrances. Height of perpendicular wall signs and overhead signs from the floor. Sign dimensions Separation of fonts from Braille. Separation of font and Braille from the edge of the sign. Distance of the top and bottom of the font from floor. Fonts Style. Height. Kerning. Sign substrate and base material Specify Braille and distance of the Braille from the floor. Ensure all screws are flush if close to raised type. Show edging or rounding of materials. Show material and substrate thickness. Paint specification Specify foreground and background color of materials. Specify matte finishing.