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Key Terms Term Definition Build Scenario A scenario that assumes a specified transportation improve- ment will be built Congestion Pricing The application of variable fees or tolls on roadways to manage available capacity and user demand Cordon and Area Pricing Traffic management strategies designed to mitigate traf- fic congestion in dense urban environments--generally city centers and the corridors providing access to them-- by charging vehicles during peak periods, either each time they pass a set boundary (cordon) or once during a set period (e.g., 24 hours) as they enter (or travel within) a spec- ified zone (area) Dynamic Pricing Variably priced tolls where toll rates vary in real time based on detected traffic conditions Farebox Term used to refer to transit fares collected from passengers Fixed Variable Pricing Variably priced tolls set according to a fixed schedule that may be determined by such variables as hour of the day, direction of travel, and day of the week General Purpose Lanes Limited access highway lanes available to all vehicles without occupancy restrictions or imposition of a toll or fee Greenfield Toll Facility A new toll highway built in a corridor that was previously without such a facility HOV2+ A policy defining vehicles with two or more passengers as HOVs HOV3+ A policy defining vehicles with three or more passengers as HOVs Level of Service (LOS) A scale ranking (A to F) of the performance of highway facilities calculated by comparing actual traffic volumes to the theoretical carrying capacity of the roadway Managed Lanes Limited access highway lanes where tools such as occu- pancy requirements, fixed or variably priced tolls, the use of ETC technology, and physical barriers and striping are used to manage the flow of vehicles in order to achieve a desired level of traffic service Maximum Optimal Capacity The maximum number of vehicles that a managed lane can carry while providing the desired traffic service level mea- sured in vehicles per hour 87
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88 Evaluation and Performance Measurement of Congestion Pricing Projects Mode Share The percentage of trips made in a specified travelshed or corridor by a given travel mode (passenger car, taxi, bus, rail transit, ferry, bicycle, etc.) No-Build Scenario A scenario that assumes a given transportation improve- ment is not built Park-and-Ride A bus or rail station providing parking where drivers may leave their vehicles and continue their journeys by public transit Particulates Solid airborne pollutants Peak Period Travel periods with the highest traffic volumes, usually occurring during weekday mornings and late afternoons Performance Evaluation An assessment of a facility or scheme's operation relative to expectation or a set of prescribed parameters; a perfor- mance evaluation can be used to make set adjustments to a facility or scheme's operation (e.g. based on an established algorithm) or used to make operational adjustments based on judgment and the weighing of present factors (e.g. costs, benefits, or risks) Performance Measure or Metric Used interchangeably, a quantitative or qualitative charac- terization of a facility or scheme's operational properties; performance measures inform a performance evaluation Performance Monitoring The ongoing, structured process of compiling perfor- mance measure data; performance monitoring results can be reported and/or retained for historical purposes; perform- ance monitoring is also required to undertake a performance evaluation Sponsoring Agency An agency responsible for developing a transportation improvement Stakeholder Agency A public agency, with a vested interest in the development of a transportation improvement, required to comment on projects as they are developed, most notably as part of the environmental review process Travelshed An area where trips tend to cluster in a linear pattern with feeder routes leading to larger linear alignments providing access into a metropolitan area Variably Priced Managed Lanes Managed lanes that use variable pricing as a tool to maintain desired traffic service levels