Index

A

Adolescents, see Teenagers

Aflatoxin, 3, 130

Age

and body mass index, 72

and caloric intake, 80

and gallstones, 83

and heart disease, 99

and weight for height, 73

Alcohol consumption

blood alcohol levels, 124

calories from, 36, 37, 121

and cancer, 14, 114, 115, 125-126

and cigarette smoking, 125

classification of drinkers, 123-124

deaths from, 58

dietary guidelines, 6, 13-14, 19, 21, 23

and heart disease, 14, 126

and high blood pressure, 14, 65, 126

and liver disease, 14, 77, 114, 124-125

and nervous system diseases, 14, 126-127

and nutritional deficiencies, 14

and obesity, 126

physiological effects of, 124

during pregnancy, 14, 127

and stroke, 126

Alcoholism, 14, 77, 114, 125

Alginates, 40

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 116

American Academy of Pediatrics, 116

American Cancer Society, 20-21

American Dental Association, 16, 116

American Diabetes Association, 17, 20-21

American Dietetic Association, 15, 22, 161

American Heart Association, 17, 20-21

American Institute of Nutrition, 15

American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 15

Amino acids

B vitamins and, 49

essential, 29, 47

sources, 12-13, 47

supplements, 15

Anemia (iron deficiency), 58, 116-117

Aneurysms, 63

Angina pectoris, 62



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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Index A Adolescents, see Teenagers Aflatoxin, 3, 130 Age and body mass index, 72 and caloric intake, 80 and gallstones, 83 and heart disease, 99 and weight for height, 73 Alcohol consumption blood alcohol levels, 124 calories from, 36, 37, 121 and cancer, 14, 114, 115, 125-126 and cigarette smoking, 125 classification of drinkers, 123-124 deaths from, 58 dietary guidelines, 6, 13-14, 19, 21, 23 and heart disease, 14, 126 and high blood pressure, 14, 65, 126 and liver disease, 14, 77, 114, 124-125 and nervous system diseases, 14, 126-127 and nutritional deficiencies, 14 and obesity, 126 physiological effects of, 124 during pregnancy, 14, 127 and stroke, 126 Alcoholism, 14, 77, 114, 125 Alginates, 40 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 116 American Academy of Pediatrics, 116 American Cancer Society, 20-21 American Dental Association, 16, 116 American Diabetes Association, 17, 20-21 American Dietetic Association, 15, 22, 161 American Heart Association, 17, 20-21 American Institute of Nutrition, 15 American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 15 Amino acids B vitamins and, 49 essential, 29, 47 sources, 12-13, 47 supplements, 15 Anemia (iron deficiency), 58, 116-117 Aneurysms, 63 Angina pectoris, 62

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Antioxidants, 48, 52 Artificial sweeteners, 21, 122, 129 Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C Aspartame, 129 Atherosclerosis cholesterol and, 61, 89 deaths, 58, 59 diabetes and, 69 fat intake and, 11, 60 mechanisms, 60-61 and peripheral artery disease, 63 prevention, 12, 61 reversal, 61 saturated fatty acids and, 92-93 and stroke, 60, 61, 64 vitamin C and, 111-112 in young adults, 99 Avocado, 41, 135, 136 B B vitamins, see specific vitamins Bacon, 142 Baking soda, 52, 119 Bananas, 137 Beans caloric intake trends, 55 carbohydrates in, 40 fiber in, 41 minerals in, 51-52 protein in, 29, 47 recommendations, 138 vitamins in, 48-49 Beef fat, 45 Beer, 6, 13, 122 Beta-carotene, 110, 111 BHA and BHT, 130 Bile, 76 Bile duct cancer, 84 Biotin, 30, 50, 159 Blacks coronary heart disease, 63 high blood pressure, 66, 67 stroke, 12, 64 Bladder cancer, 68, 111, 127-128, 129 Blindness, 69 Blood clotting, 47, 48 pressure, 65-66 see also High blood pressure Body fat distribution and blood pressure, 83 and diabetes, 70, 73 genetic factor in, 82 and heart disease, 73 and stroke, 71-72 waist-to-hip ratio, 73-74, 83 Body mass index, 71-72 Bone composition, 75 formation and growth, 48, 51, 52 mass, 15, 51, 115 Bran, 30, 40, 41, 106, 107 Bread, 91 carbohydrates in, 137 fiber in, 30, 41 minerals in, 51 protein in, 29 recommendations, 6, 7, 12, 101, 133, 137 vitamins in, 49, 50 Breakfast, 54-55, 153 Breakfast cereals, 48, 49 Breast cancer, 2, 11, 24, 68, 84, 96, 97, 113, 125 Breast milk, 98-99 Breastfeeding, 15 Brewer's yeast, 51 Broccoli, 48 Butter cholesterol in, 55 fats in, 27, 28, 41, 42, 45, 134, 143 margarine substituted for, 132-133 and serum cholesterol, 92 vitamins in, 48, 110 C Cabbage, 48 Cafeteria food, 154 Caffeine, 112, 127, 128 Cakes and cookies, 28, 41, 149 Calcium and chronic disease, 115-116 dietary guidelines, 6, 15, 21, 23 and osteoporosis, 15, 23, 115 plaque formation in blood stream, 60 protein intake and, 11, 103 recommended intake, 115, 159 role in the body, 30, 50, 51, 115

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease sources, 15, 23, 51, 115, 138 supplements, 15, 21, 115 vitamin D and, 21, 47, 48 Caloric intake activity level and, 35-36, 54 age and, 80 from carbohydrates, 54-55 and dietary supplement use, 15 and expenditures, 35-36, 79-81 from fat, 10, 54-55 from meat and poultry, by cut, 141 and obesity, 2 from saturated fatty acids, 10, 25-26 and weight, 22, 37, 80-81 Cancer alcohol consumption and, 113, 125-126 caloric intake and, 97 coffee and tea and, 127-128 deaths, 58, 59, 67 diagnosis, 68 diet-related types, 68 fats and, 2, 4, 11, 87, 96-97, 128 fiber and, 106 mechanisms in, 67-68, 125-126 preventive foods and nutrients, 12, 97, 110-111 protein and, 102 rates, 67 recommendations for risk reduction, 17, 20-21, 25 risk of, 27, 69 saturated fatty acids and, 4, 97 vitamin A and, 110-111 vitamin E and, 113 weight and, 84, 97 see also specific kinds of cancer Canola oil, 43, 94, 133, 142, 143 Carbohydrates caloric content, 36, 37 consumption trends, 54-55 defined, 29-30 dental caries and, 77, 103-104 fattening foods, 101, 133 and heart disease, 101 metabolism, 38, 48, 49, 51 and noninsulin-dependent diabetes, 104 role in the body, 34 sources, 38 structure, 39 types, see Complex carbohydrates; Fiber; Sugars Carotenoids, 48, 110, 137 Carrageenan, 40 Carrots, 12 Cavities, see Dental Caries Cellulose, 30, 40-41 Cereals carbohydrates in, 29, 40, 137 fiber in, 30, 41 food additives in, 129, 130 malted, 40 minerals in, 51-52 protein in, 47 recommended intakes, 6, 11, 12, 132, 133 vitamins in, 48-49 whole-grain, 30, 133 see also Grains and grain products Cerebral hemorrhage, 64; see also Stroke Cerebral thrombosis, 64; see also Stroke Cervical cancer, 84, 111 Cheeses, 52, 92, 104, 132, 135, 138 Chest pain, 62 Chewing tobacco, 113-114 Children calcium intake, 115 eating habits, 99 fat intake, 11, 81, 98-99 fluoride supplements, 16, 117 iron intake, 19 Chloride, 31, 51 Chocolate, 28, 41 Cholesterol (dietary) children's intake, 99 consumption trends, 55 guidelines, 6, 10, 11, 18, 20, 22 responsiveness to, 93 and serum cholesterol, 10, 93 sources, 10, 28, 45, 46, 55, 141, 142, 149 Cholesterol (serum) cholesterol intake and, 10, 93 coffee drinking and, 128 defined, 28 desirable levels, 46 diagnosis, 24 fiber intake and, 105-106 and heart disease, 25-27, 60, 87-91

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease high, prevalence of, 60 protein intake and, 102 role in the body, 28, 45, 76, 84 saturated fatty acids and, 10, 25-26, 95, 102 structure, 46 studies monitoring health effects, 89 total, 28, 46 types, 46 vitamin C and, 112 weight and production of, 84 see also HDL cholesterol; LDL cholesterol Chromium, 30, 51 Cigarette smoking, 63, 81-82, 96, 125, 128 Cirrhosis of the liver, 58, 59, 76-77, 124-125 Citrus fruits, 12, 48, 57, 137 Cobalamin, see Vitamin B12 Cobalt, 30 Cocktails, 6, 13 Cocoa butter, 92, 143 Coconut, 41, 44, 136 Coconut oil, 10, 142, 143, 146 Coffee and tea, 127-128 Colon cancer, 2, 11, 12, 68, 84, 96, 106, 128 Colorectal cancer, 68, 97 Complex carbohydrates defined, 29-30 and dental caries, 103-104 dietary guidelines, 12, 19, 21, 22 food supply, 55 high-fat, 137 protective effects of, 103-104 role in the body, 41 serving recommendations, 6, 11, 12, 22, 134 sources, 22, 132, 135, 138 structure, 39 types, 39 see also Fiber; Starches Congestive heart failure, 77 Connective tissue growth, 48 Cookbooks, 162 Cooking, 21 broiling, 148 frying, 133, 147 microwaving, 148 salt addition during, 14 sauteing, 148 sodium equivalent, 14 steaming, 147 stir-frying, 147-148 substitutions, 149-152 vitamin destruction during, 48 Copper, 30, 48, 50, 51, 159 Corn oil, 143 Corn syrups, 40, 144 Coronary heard disease, 2, 13, 24-25, 27, 62, 73, 85 Cottage cheese, 138-139 Cottonseed oil, 143 Couch potatoes, energy needs, 36 Council on Scientific Affairs, dietary recommendation to U.S. public , 18-19 Crackers, 135, 145-146 Cream cheese, 150 D Dairy products cholesterol in, 10, 28, 46 fats in, 10, 28, 41, 102, 135, 138 low-fat/nonfat, 11, 132, 138-139 minerals in, 51-52, 115, 138 protein in, 47, 102 shopping for, 138-139 substitutes for, 150 see also specific products Dark-green vegetables, 15, 48, 49, 51, 110 Deficiency diseases, 1-2, 55, 57-58 Dementia, 126 Dental caries, 2, 16, 58, 59, 77, 116 Desserts, 130, 135, 136 Dextrose, 144 Diabetes mellitus body fat distribution and, 70, 73 complications of, 69, 104 deaths, 58, 59 insulin-dependent, 69-70 mechanisms in, 69 recommendations for risk reduction, 20-21 treatment, 69-70 types, 69-70 weight and, 83 see also Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Diet, changes over time, 53-56

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Dietary guidelines alcoholic beverages, 6, 13-14, 19, 21 calcium, 6, 15 cholesterol, 6, 10, 11, 18, 20, 22 complex carbohydrates, 6, 12, 19, 21, 22 conflicts in, 23 development of, 3-5 exercise, 6, 13, 18, 20 fat, 6, 10-11, 18, 20, 22 fiber, 19, 21, 22-23 fluoride, 6, 16 of other expert groups, 16-23 see also specific groups polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18, 20 protein, 6, 12-13, 23 risk-reducing, for specific diseases, 20-21, 24-27 salt (sodium chloride), 6, 14, 19, 21 saturated fatty acids, 6, 10-11, 18, 20, 22 sugars (simple), 18, 20 vitamin/mineral supplements, 6, 15-16 see also specific foods Dietary terms/definitions carbohydrates, 29-30 cholesterol, 28 fats, 27-28 fatty acids, 28 minerals, 30-31 protein, 28-29 vitamins, 30 Dieting, 5-7, 84-85 Dietitians, 161 Disaccharides, 39; see also Sugars Drinking water, fluoride in, 16, 19, 51, 116 E Eating out, 4-5, 55, 152-154 Eating patterns changes in, 55, 154-155 dieting, 5-7 guidelines, see Dietary guidelines Education/information materials, 161-162 programs, 3, 4 Eggs cholesterol in, 10, 28, 46, 55, 149 consumption trends, 55 limiting intakes, 11 minerals in, 51, 52 role in cooking, 149 substitutes for, 132, 149-150 vitamins in, 48, 49, 110 Eicosapentaenoic acid, 44, 45 Electrolytes, 31, 50 Endometrial cancer, 13, 68, 84, 97 Energy, see Caloric intake; Food energy Enzymes, 46, 47 Esophageal cancer, 2, 68, 111, 113-114, 125 Ethanol, see Alcohol consumption; Alcoholism Ethnic cuisine, 5, 91-92, 153 Exercise bicycle riding, 36 and blood pressure, 96 caloric intake and, 35, 54 guidelines, 6, 13, 17, 18, 20, 22 and weight, 13, 37, 81 F Familial hypercholesterolemia, 90-91 Family history of disease, and prevention, 24 Fast-food, 4-5, 154 Fat-soluble vitamins, 30, 47-50, 159; see also specific vitamins Fats (dietary) caloric intake from, 10, 36, 37, 54-55 and cancer, 2, 4, 11, 87, 96-97, 128 and children's health, 98-99 consumption trends, 53, 54-55 defined, 27-28 dietary guidelines, 6, 10-11, 18, 20, 22 energy conversion from, 37 and gallstones, 98 and heart disease, 2, 4, 11, 87, 88 hidden, in foods, 134-135 and high blood pressure, 95-96 metabolism of, 51 role in the body, 34, 37, 41 solubility, 41-42 sources, 27-28, 41, 141 substitution of leaner foods for, 11 structure, 41 see also Fatty acids; Triglycerides

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Fatty acids defined, 28 essential, 11, 43-44 and heart disease, 60, 91-94 niacin and, 49 structure, 42-43 see also Monounsaturated fatty acids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Saturated fatty acids; and specific fatty acids Fetal alcohol syndrome, 127 Fiber (dietary) and cancer, 106 guidelines, 19, 21, 22-23 and heart disease, 105-106 and mineral deficiency, 107 protective effects of, 30, 103, 105, 106, 107 role in the body, 41 and serum cholesterol, 105-106 sources, 12, 22, 40-41, 105, 107, 138 supplements, 21, 107 types of, 105 Fish cholesterol in, 10 consumption trends, 55 cooking, 148 minerals in, 51, 52 protein in, 140, 142 recommended intake, 19 substitution for meats, 11, 19, 140, 142 vitamins in, 48, 49 Fish oils, 44 Fluoride, 30 and dental caries, 116 dietary guidelines, 6, 16, 19 role in the body, 51 sources, 51, 116 supplements, 16, 117 Folacin, 30, 49, 114, 159 Food additives, 19, 40, 128-130 Food energy availability of, 54 best sources, 29, 40 from carbohydrates, 49 dieting and efficiency of conversion, 85 from fats, 41, 49 measure of, 35; see also Caloric intake nutrients aiding conversion of, 48, 49, 51, 52 from protein, 49 requirements, 35, 36 role in the body, 35 storage as fat, 81 Food industry, recommended changes for, 4-5 Food labels fat types, 146 on frozen foods, 146-147 health claims, 136, 139, 144 ingredient lists, 144, 146 nutrition information, 144-145, 146 serving size, 145-146 vitamin/mineral information, 110, 146 Food processing, 4, 40; see also Cooking Food shopping dairy products, 138-139 frozen food, 146-147 fruits and vegetables, 136-137 grain products, 137 legumes, 138 meats and poultry, 139-140, 141 packaged foods, 144-146 packaged meats, 142-144 seafood, 140, 142 vegetable oils, 142 Food supply, changes in, 53-55 Foods contaminants in, 122, 130 guidelines for choosing, 132-133, 162 menu planning, 33-34, 133-136 preparation, see Cooking see also Food processing; Food shopping; and specific foods Fried foods, 11, 133 Frozen foods, shopping for, 142-146 Fructose, 29, 39, 40, 103, 144 Fruits and vegetables energy conversion from, 39 nutrients in, 28, 30, 31, 40, 41, 48, 49, 51, 52, 105, 118, 133 preparation, 130, 147-148 serving recommendations, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 22, 134, 135 shopping for, 136-137 G Galactose, 40 Gallbladder cancer, 84

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Gallbladder disease, 13 Gallstones age and, 83 fat intake and, 98 fiber intake and, 106 obesity and, 76, 83, 98 prevalence, 58, 59 weight and, 83-84 Gangrene, 63, 69 Genetic factors in chronic disease, 25, 65, 82 Genetic material, production aids, 49 Glucose, 29, 39, 69, 83 Goiter, 1, 58 Grains and grain products aflatoxin contamination, 3 consumption trends, 55 nutrients in, 40, 48, 49, 51, 52, 105 recommendations, 22 shopping for, 137-138 see also Cereals Green peppers, 48 Green vegetables, 12, 48, 49, 51 Growth, 48 Guidelines, see Dietary guidelines Guar gum, 40, 106, 107 Gums, 40 H Hardening of the arteries, see Atherosclerosis HDL cholesterol, 28, 46, 61, 90, 91, 94 Heart attack, 4 alcoholic beverages and, 126 cause, 10, 62 cholesterol and, 88, 90, 93 deaths from, 63 diabetes and, 69 fiber and, 106 protein and, 102 risk reduction, 93, 106, 126 saturated fatty acids and, 88, 95 Heart disease alcohol consumption and, 14, 126 carbohydrates and, 101 coffee and tea and, 128 deaths, 58, 59 fats and, 2, 4, 60, 87, 88 fatty acids and, 60, 91-94 fiber and, 105-106 geographic differences in incidence, 88-89 potassium and, 118 protective foods and nutrients, 13, 23, 126 protein and, 102 recommendations for risk reduction, 17, 20-21 salt intake and, 25 saturated fatty acids and, 4, 25-26, 94-95 serum cholesterol and, 25-27, 87-91 and stroke, 60 weight and, 82 see also Atherosclerosis Height/weight tables, 17, 71, 73, 74 Hemachromatosis, 76 Hemicellulose, 40, 41 High blood pressure alcohol consumption and, 14, 65, 126 body fat distribution and, 83 diagnosis/detection, 24, 66-67 effects on body systems, 65 fats and, 95-96 fiber intake and, 106 kidney disease and, 65 obesity and, 65 potassium and, 118 prevalence, 14, 58-59, 66-67 salt and, 2, 25, 65, 118 and stroke, 64 symptoms, 65-66 weight and, 13, 65, 82-83 High blood sugar, 40 High-density lipoproteins, 28; see also HDL cholesterol High-fructose corn syrups, 40, 144 Honey, 39, 144 Hot dogs, 142, 144 Hypertension, see High blood pressure I Ice cream, 36, 37, 38, 132 Ice milk, 36, 37, 38 Infants and toddlers dietary recommendations, 15, 25, 98 Insulin, 51

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Inter-Society Commission for Heart Disease Resources, 20-21 Iodine, 1, 30, 51, 58, 159 Ions, 50, 52 Iron, 30, 50, 51 absorption, 50, 51 deficiency, 58, 116-117 dietary recommendations, 11, 19 U.S. RDAs, 159 role in the body, 51, 116-117 sources, 51, 116 Italian food, 91-92, 153 K Kidney disease, 65, 69 L Labels, see Food labels Lactose, 29, 39, 40 Lard, 27, 28, 41, 132-133, 143, 146 Laryngeal cancer, 111, 125 Lauric acid, 42, 92 LDL cholesterol coffee drinking and, 128 defined, 28, 46 dietary cholesterol and, 93 in familial hypercholesterolemia, 90-91 fiber intake and, 106 and heart attack, 90 role in the body, 61, 90 saturated fatty acid intake and, 92, 94 typical values, 90 vegetable oils and, 94, 133, 146 Lecithin, 15 Legumes, 6, 11, 12, 19, 22, 105, 132, 137-138; see also specific legumes Lentils, 138 Lettuce, 136 Lignin, 40, 41 Linoleic acid, 42, 43-44 Linolenic acid, 42, 43, 96 Lipids, see Cholesterol; Fats; Fatty acids Lipoproteins, 46, 90; see also High-density lipoproteins; Low-density lipoproteins Liver (food), 46, 48, 49, 51, 68, 110 Liver cancer, 125, 130 Liver disease alcohol consumption and, 14, 114, 125-126 deaths, 58, 59 see also Cirrhosis of the liver Locust bean gum, 40 Low-density lipoproteins, 28; see also LDL cholesterol Lunch meats, 142 Lung cancer, 12, 68, 110-111, 113 M Macrominerals, 50; see also Calcium; Phosphorus Magnesium, 51, 159 Maltose, 39-40, 144 Manganese, 30, 51 Maple syrup, 39, 144 Margarine, 27, 41, 44, 132-133, 139, 143 Meats and poultry caloric content, 37, 141 cholesterol, 28, 46, 140, 141 consumption trends, 53-55, 92 cured, 129 fats in, 10, 28, 41, 102, 141 grades, 140 lean, 4, 11, 53, 132, 139-140, 150-151 minerals in, 31, 51, 52 packaged, 142-144 portion sizes, 11, 13, 135, 140 preservatives, 129 protein in, 47, 102 recommended intakes, 19, 134, 135 saturated fatty acids, 141 shopping for, 139-140, 142-144 substitutes for, 132, 151-152 vitamins in, 48, 49 Melons, 48 Men caloric intake and expenditure, 35-36, 80 coronary heart disease, 63 Menu planning, 33-34, 133-136 Milk and milk products aflatoxin in, 3 calories, 36, 37, 38 carbohydrates, 38, 40

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease fat in, 37, 38, 45, 132, 135 fortification, 58 ice milk, 36, 37, 38 infant formula, 98-99 low-fat/nonfat, 15, 139, 147 minerals in, 15, 23, 51, 52, 132 protein in, 132 vitamins in, 48, 49, 110 see also Breast milk; Dairy products Minerals deficiencies, 107, 109 defined, 30-31 role in the body, 30-31, 34, 50-52 sources, 51, 52 toxicity, 114 U.S. RDAs, 159 see also Trace elements; and specific minerals Molasses, 39, 144 Molybdenum, 30, 52 Monosaccharides, 39; see also Sugars Monosodium glutamate, 119 Monounsaturated fatty acids caloric intake from, 54-55 and heart disease, 95 and serum cholesterol, 94, 133 sources, 28, 43, 44, 133, 142, 143 structure, 43 Mucilage, 40 Muscle function, 51, 52, 63 Mustard greens, 137 Myocardial infarction, see Heart attack Myristic acid, 42, 92 N National Cancer Institute, 17, 20-21 National Center for Nutrition and Dietetics, 161 National Council Against Health Fraud, 15 National Institutes of Health, 20-21 National Research Council, dietary recommendations, 18-21 Native Americans, 76 Nerve function, 51, 52 Nervous system diseases, alcohol consumption and, 14, 126-127 Niacin, 1, 30, 49, 58, 114, 159 Nitrites, 129 Nitrosamines, 129 Nondairy coffee whiteners, 150 Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus body fat distribution and, 70, 83 caloric intake and, 2 carbohydrates and, 104 dietary recommendations for preventing, 17 fiber intake and, 106 obesity and, 70 risk factors, 70, 104 weight and, 13, 83 Nutrients caloric content of, 35-37 deficiencies, 1, 14 see also specific nutrients Nutrition counseling, 154, 161 Nuts consumption trends, 55 fats in, 28 fiber in, 41 minerals in, 51, 52 protein in, 47 vitamins in, 48, 49 O Oat bran, 40, 106 Oatmeal, 137 Obesity alcohol consumption and, 126 caloric intake and, 2 and cancer, 97 and chronic disease, 17 defined, 70, 82 and gallstones, 76, 83 genetic factor, 82 and high blood pressure, 65 prevalence, 58-59, 75 Oils and fats, 11; see also Vegetable oils Oleic acid, 42, 43, 45 Olive oil, 43, 45, 92, 94, 142, 143 Oral cancer, 111, 125 Orange vegetables, 48, 110 Oriental food, 153 Osteoarthritis, 13 Osteomalacia, 112-113 Osteoporosis and bone fracture, 75, 115 calcium and, 15, 23, 115-116

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease and estrogen therapy, 115 prevalence, 58, 59 protein and, 102 recommendations for risk reduction, 20-21 vitamin D and, 112, 113 Ovarian cancer, 68, 84 Overweight, 70, 71, 74-75, 82, 83, 85 P Packaged foods, shopping for, 142-146 Palm-kernel oil, 10, 143 Palm oil, 10, 44, 143 Palmitic acid, 42, 43, 92 Pancreatic cancer, 68 Pantothenic acid, 30, 49, 159 Pasta, 7, 91, 137 Peanut butter, 29 Peanut oil, 43, 142, 143 Peanuts, 3, 31 Peas, 29, 41, 138 Pectin, 30, 40, 106 Pellagra, 1, 58, 109 Peripheral artery disease, 61, 63 Phenylketonuria, 129 Phosphorus, 48, 50, 52, 102, 159 Pickled foods, 129 Pinto beans, 40 Pizza, 135 Plaque, 10 Polysaccharides, see Complex carbohydrates Polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood pressure, 96 caloric intake from, 54-55, 96 dietary guidelines, 18, 20 and heart disease, 95 omega-3, 44, 45, 142 omega-6, 44 and serum cholesterol, 95 sources, 28, 44, 142, 143 structure, 43-44 Polyvinyl chloride, 128 Popcorn, 135 Potassium, 12, 31, 52, 118, 137 Potatoes, 7, 29, 31, 40, 101, 130, 133, 137 Poultry, see Meats and poultry Pregnancy and alcohol consumption, 13, 14, 127 and coffee and tea consumption, 128 dietary supplements during, 15 Preservatives, 119, 129, 130 Processed foods, 19, 135 Prostate cancer, 2, 11, 68, 84, 97 Protein and calcium loss, 103 caloric intake from, 36, 37, 53, 54, 55 and cancer, 102 complementary proteins, 29 complete proteins, 29 defined, 28-29 dietary guidelines, 6, 12-13, 21, 23 energy conversion from, 37 and heart disease, 102 and osteoporosis, 103 role in the body, 34, 46 and saturated fatty acids intakes, 101 and serum cholesterol, 102 sources, 29, 47, 102, 132, 138, 140, 142 structure, 47 supplements, 15, 21 U.S. RDA, 159 Pyridoxine, see Vitamin B6 R Reproduction, 48 Restaurants, 152-153 Retinoids, 110, 111 Retinol, see Vitamin A Riboflavin, 30, 49, 113, 159 Rice, 29, 137 Rice bran, 40 Rickets, 58, 109, 112-113 Roughage, see Fiber S Saccharine, 129 Safflower oil, 143 Salad bars, 153-154 Salad dressings, 133, 134, 144, 150 Salt (sodium chloride) added at the table, 133 and cancer, 14 components, 50, 52 dietary guidelines, 6, 14, 19, 21

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease and hypertension, 2, 25, 65, 118-119 iodized, 58 in processed foods, 4 sensitivity, 119 substitutes for, 151 Salts, 50, 52 Saturated fatty acids and blood pressure, 96 caloric intake from, 10, 25-26, 54-55 and cancer, 4, 97 children's intake, 99 dietary guidelines, 5, 10-11, 18, 20, 22 and heart disease, 4, 11, 94-95 and serum cholesterol, 10, 25-26, 92, 94, 102 sources, 10, 23, 28, 101, 130, 132, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 146 structure, 42 types, 42 see also specific saturated fatty acids Sausage, 142 Scurvy, 57-58 Seafood, 44, 51, 52, 53, 135, 140, 142 Seeds, 48, 52, 55 Selenium, 30, 52, 113 Sesame oil, 143 Shellfish, 28, 46, 51, 52, 142 Shopping, see Food shopping Shortening, 27-28, 41, 42, 44, 130, 146 Skin, 48, 51 Smoked foods, 129 Snacks/snacking, 55, 135 Sodium and high blood pressure, 118-119 role in the body, 52 salt equivalent, 14 sources, 31, 52, 119 and stroke, 12 Sodium chloride, see Salt Soft drinks, 40, 104, 129 Soups, 144, 150-151 Soy sauce, 135 Soybean oil, 143, 146 Soybeans, 102 Spaghetti sauce, 144 Spicy foods, 150 Spinach, 136-137 Squash, 137 Starches, 6, 29, 40, 55; see also Complex carbohydrates Steak sauce, 135 Stearic acid, 42, 92 Stomach cancer, 12, 14, 68, 111, 119, 129-130 Strawberries, 48 Streptococcus mutans, 77 Stroke, 64 alcohol consumption and, 126 atherosclerosis and, 60, 61, 64 body fat distribution and, 72 cholesterol and, 10 deaths, 58, 59 diabetes and, 69 potassium and, 118 risk factors and populations, 12, 27 salt intake and, 25 signs and symptoms, 64 types, 64 Sucrose, 29, 39, 40, 103 Sugars (simple) defined, 29 and dental caries, 103 dietary guidelines, 18, 20 energy conversion from, 39 food supply, 55 replacements listed on food labels, 144 sources, 39-40 structure, 39, 40 Sulfur, 30 Sunflower oil, 143 Supplements, see Vitamin/mineral supplements Sweet potatoes, 12, 137 T Tea, 51, 127-128 Teenagers calcium intake, 15, 19, 115 iron intake, 19 Teeth, 51; see also Dental Caries Thiamin, 30, 48, 114, 127, 159 Throat cancer, 125 Tofu, 146 Tomatoes, 48 Tortillas, 51

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease Trace elements role in the body, 34 toxicity, 30 see also specific elements Triglycerides, 41, 42, 90 U U.S. Department of Agriculture, dietary recommendations, 18-19, 161 -162 U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, dietary recommendations , 18-19 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, dietary recommendations , 18-19 U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances (U.S. RDAs), 146, 159 U.S. Senate, dietary recommendations to U.S. public, 18-19 Unsaturated fatty acids cis and trans configurations, 44-45 see also Monounsaturated fatty acids; Polyunsaturated acids V Vegetable oils cholesterol-reducing effects, 93-94 fat content of, 143, 146 hydrogenation, 44, 45 nutrients in, 28, 41, 42, 48, 135, 142 Vegetables, see Fruits and vegetables Vegetarians, 15, 95, 105 Very-low-density lipoproteins, 46, 90 Viral hepatitis, 76 Vision, 48 Vitamin A, 30 activity, 110 and cancer, 110-111 protective effects of, 110-111 role in the body, 48 sources, 48, 110, 137 toxicity, 50 U.S. RDA, 159 Vitamin B1, see Thiamin Vitamin B2, see Riboflavin Vitamin B6, 30, 49, 114, 159 Vitamin B12, 30, 49, 50, 114, 159 Vitamin C, 30 and cancer, 111-112 deficiency, 57-58 protective effects of, 111-112 role in the body, 49 and serum cholesterol, 112 sources, 48, 57, 137 supplements, 112 U.S. RDA, 159 Vitamin D and calcium absorption, 21, 47, 48, 50, 116 and cholesterol, 45 deficiency, 58, 112-113 manufacture in the body, 50 and osteomalacia, 112-113 and osteoporosis, 112, 113 role in the body, 47, 48, 112 sources, 48, 58 storage in the body, 30 supplements, 116 toxicity, 50 U.S. RDA, 159 Vitamin E, 30, 48, 113, 159 Vitamin K, 30, 47, 48, 50 Vitamin/mineral supplements calcium, 15, 21 dietary guidelines, 6, 15-16, 21, 23 fluoride, 16 need for, 15, 16, 119-120 Vitamins and alcoholism, 114, 127 deficiencies, 1, 109, 114, 127 food sources, 49-50 role in the body, 34, 47-50 storage in the body, 49-50 toxicity, 50, 120 types defined, 30 U.S. RDAs, 159 see also specific vitamins W Walnut oil, 143 Water-soluble vitamins, 30, 47-50, 159; see also specific vitamins Watermelon, 137 Weight appropriate, determining, 70-71 caloric intake and, 22, 37, 80-81

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Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease cancer and, 13, 84 and death rates, 70 diabetes and, 13, 83, 104 dieting cycle and, 84-85 exercise and, 13, 37, 81 fat intake and, 81 fiber consumption and, 105 gallstones and, 13, 83-84, 98 heart disease and, 13, 82 high blood pressure and, 13, 82-83 recommendations, 17 see also Body mass index; Height/weight tables; Obesity; Overweight Wheat, 52 bran, 41, 106, 107 germ, 48 Wine, 6, 13, 122 Women bone loss, 75, 113 calcium intake, 15, 19 caloric intake and expenditure, 35-36, 80 coronary heart disease, 63 gallstones in, 76 high blood pressure, 66 iron intake, 19, 117 vitamin/mineral supplements, 15 Y Yeast, 130 Yellow vegetables, 12, 48, 110 Yogurt, 36, 37, 38, 52, 132, 139, 146-147, 150 Z Zinc, 30, 52, 159