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Current Context for Baggage Recheck 11 Figure 1. International arrivals and connections volumes (2008). (CLT) airports presented the highest proportion of international arrivals connecting onward, all international arrivals comprise less than 1.5 percent of total airport traffic. In order to truly measure and gauge the opportunities to eliminate or reduce the need for baggage recheck, the research team needed to ensure that a representative sample of current processes was selected. This will be detailed in the following chapter. Process Flows for Terminating and Connecting Passengers The 2006 CBP Airport Technical Design Standards form the basis for the generic template that depicts the process for terminating and connecting flows (see Figure 3). The italicized text outlines CBP and TSA risk elements associated with each step of the process. This analysis is driven by the critical component to any international arrivals process change--the ability for CBP to enforce its mandated mission to safeguard the U.S. homeland.

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12Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers Figure 2. Annual international arrivals and ratio of connecting to terminating traffic. As a baseline, terminating passengers follow Steps 1 through 4 in Figure 3 to exit at arrivals with their checked bags. Transfer passengers, on the other hand, as a baseline proceed through the same four steps, but also have an additional process for baggage recheck through to enplane- ment for the next flight (Steps 5 through 7). These steps are explained as follows: 1. Deplane: International arrivals to the United States arrive at segregated areas of the airport terminal, which prevents interaction with other passengers (ensuring sterility) until they have been processed by CBP. Typically, passengers deplane and proceed to Step 2 (CBP Primary) via a sterile corridor that takes the passengers from the arrival gate to the FIS area. Figure 3. Generic process flow.

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Current Context for Baggage Recheck 13 The sterile corridors leading from the arrivals gate to the FIS area are secured with access control solutions that include automatic alarms, closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras and staffed personnel, and directional signage. CBP maintains sterility to prevent mixing of cleared and uncleared passengers, as well as the potential for contraband exchange. 2. CBP Primary: All international arriving passengers and crew members to the United States must be processed by CBP to determine their admissibility to the United States. CBP Pri- mary is the initial point of contact for an officer to question passengers and to understand the intent of their travel to the United States. The CBP officer at the primary position has the option of deeming the passenger admissible, or referring him/her for inspection in CBP Secondary. One of CBP's missions is to keep terrorists and their weapons from entering the United States. CBP officers are trained to address risks in order to prevent radioactive materials, narcotics, agri- cultural pests, and smuggled goods from entering the country, and also to identify and arrest those with outstanding criminal warrants. CBP officers utilize advance passenger information (API) and passenger name record (PNR); behavioral detection; and the information provided from the traveler declaration card, entry visa documentation, and passport to compile their assessment of the passengers' worthiness to enter the United States. The officer has the authority to refer a pas- senger to CBP Secondary if the officer believes a more thorough inspection is warranted. Some reasons that could prompt an officer to refer a passenger to Secondary are agricultural concerns, documentation issues, immigration uncertainties, currency reporting, or counterfeiting. CBP Secondary: CBP Secondary is the location to which a number of passengers are directed for further inspection. Passengers may be referred to Secondary at any time from Primary, Baggage Claim, or Egress. The Secondary officer may ask a number of additional questions and has the authority to search the person and/or their baggage. In the past, sepa- rate Secondary areas existed for different agencies (i.e., former Immigration and Natural- ization Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Customs Service). CBP is in the process of amalgamating Secondary areas into one unified location; for most airports, however, Secondary areas are still separated based on past practices. Secondary Processing is an important component of CBP's operations, in that it provides a location for more intensive scrutiny that is physically separated from Primary Processing. This allows passengers without any issues to be processed more quickly through Primary Processing. 3. Baggage Claim: Generally, international arriving passengers with checked baggage are required to retrieve their bags from carousels located within the FIS area. The carousels may be located on either the same floor as CBP Primary or on a separate floor. Within the baggage claim area, CBP may have roving uniformed officers as well as plain- clothed officers. Other risk management tools (e.g., canine teams) are also occasionally deployed within the baggage claim area. This provides CBP officers with an opportunity for visual observa- tion of passengers and their bags when claimed as part of their risk assessment. It also provides CBP officers with the ability to act upon intelligence received from the direct observation of specific bags. The study team notes that some within CBP adhere to the long-standing practice of reunit- ing bags with passengers to have a "complete package" to visually manage risks. Other views cite the power of alternative risk management methods that will be detailed in Chapter 6. 4. Egress Officer: The Egress officer is the last point of contact for passengers within the FIS area, and is responsible for exit control and collecting the passenger's declaration cards. The Egress officer may permit the traveler to exit the FIS area or refer the traveler to CBP Secondary. The Egress officer is primarily responsible for collecting declaration cards and directing passen- gers to Secondary. While CBP has design principles to remove the Egress officer function, this will depend on the consolidation of Secondary Processing facilities into one location (i.e., immigration, customs, and agricultural in the same place instead of split onto separate levels). 5. Baggage Recheck: Baggage recheck facilities were established to provide the traveler with an easier process for re-inducting their checked baggage into the airport baggage handling system.

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14Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers Passengers typically deliver their baggage to a conveyor belt, which transports it to TSA baggage explosive detection systems (EDS) before introducing it into the domestic baggage system. 6. Passenger Screening: To meet the 2001 Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA), every passenger boarding a commercial aircraft in the United States must be screened by TSA. The screening process is conducted with walk-through metal detectors, X-ray imaging, and physical searches. TSA screening is conducted using walk-through metal detectors, explosive trace detection, advanced imaging technology and X-ray imaging, and physical searches. All travelers must sub- mit to TSA screening in order to enter the departures area. As witnessed recently (e.g., the TSA response to the December 25, 2009, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab mid-flight incident), passenger screening programs, technologies, and processes to address the risk environment may undergo changes that will impact the transfer. Baggage Process Screening: In accordance with the ATSA, all baggage to be loaded onto an aircraft scheduled to depart a U.S. airport must be screened by TSA. TSA screens bags for explosives or other dangerous items. Early TSA deployments consisted of units the size of minivans in lobby areas. This location made the recheck process more complicated due to the lack of adequate space. More recent evolutions to in-line systems built into airport/ airline baggage systems could help the speed of transfer bag screening. 7. Enplane: The passenger's journey through the connecting airport ends when they board their outbound domestic or international flight. All passengers and baggage loaded onto the outbound aircraft will have been screened by TSA. TSA requires that any baggage loaded onto the aircraft must have a positive match associated with a passenger who has been boarded onto the aircraft. If a passenger has checked baggage but ultimately does not end up boarding the flight, his or her baggage is to be pulled prior to departure. For the purpose of this study, Steps 3 and 4 will receive the greatest attention as they are most relevant to managing risks presented by checked baggage. Variation in Connection Processes by Airport An inventory of current recheck procedures was conducted for all FIS sites at U.S. airports to categorize similar facilities. Some airports have multiple FIS facilities, e.g., Los Angeles (LAX), and as a result, an individual airport may have multiple processing types depending on the ter- minal. In total, the 30 airports surveyed had 45 FIS facilities. The review found that of the 45 FIS facilities: One facility (i.e., Guam) has eliminated baggage recheck. Three facilities (i.e., Dallas/Fort Worth, HartsfieldJackson Atlanta, and Houston) have already reduced baggage recheck for international-to-international connections. Forty-two FIS facilities have baggage recheck facilities located immediately after CBP clear- ance processing. Three facilities have recheck processing at the regular outbound check-in. These processes (Types AE) are summarized in Appendix C and described in Figure 4. Types D and E are of note: Some facilities direct passengers to regular airline check-in pro- cesses to recheck bags (Type D). Furthermore, due to local facility considerations or airline/ airport proposals for process changes, bags are already exempt from CBP processing areas at several sites (Type E): Guam: Continental (United) Airlines operations HartsfieldJackson Atlanta: Delta Air Lines on international-to-international operations Dallas/Fort Worth: American Airlines, British Airways on select international-to-international connections

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Current Context for Baggage Recheck 15 Figure 4. Five process types for international arrival connections. Houston: Continental Airlines on international-to-international flights Preclearance airports: All carrier operations in Vancouver, Halifax, Ottawa, Montral, and Shannon; some operations in Edmonton Altogether these 10 facilities have 7 million passengers per year whose bags are exempt from being present in the FIS area--this constitutes just under 10 percent of the 76 million passengers CBP clears every year. Note that bags are not exempt from CBP processing; alternative means have been developed to process checked bags at these sites. Procedures are in place to manage risk and to route bags to CBP Secondary Processing as needed. The other 90 percent of passengers not exempt from being reunited with their checked bags are from Preclearance facilities in foreign countries for admission to the United States. Flights arriving from Preclearance airports are treated similarly to U.S. domestic flights in that passen- gers deplane directly into the departures area of the terminal (i.e., no passenger rescreening), and bags are exempt from the FIS area. Checked bags, however, must still be rescreened by TSA at the transfer airport.