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22Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers quickly. The processes and systems used for the international connections baggage program can be ported over to an international-to-domestic scenario, depending on the alternative processes used, with little additional training. Airport The main cost identified by DFW is to the infrastructure at the airport, or specifically the con- necting induction point on the ramp level is not able to accept the significantly increased number of bags--more than 50-fold--that domestic destination connections represent over the current number of international destination connections. Similarly, the number of bag retrievals for CBP Secondary processes may overwhelm the current system of manual retrievals for bags on an indi- vidual basis. Both facilities and operational costs to the airport would be incurred as a result. While one of the potential improvements from eliminating baggage recheck is a reduced minimum connection time (MCT) through DFW, this benefit has not yet been realized in the international-to-international connection program. Customs and Border Protection CBP views the implementation of the international-to-international connection program that eliminates baggage recheck for other passengers as a successful endeavor. CBP assessed the risk posed by this segment of passengers and their bags and ensured that appropriate steps were implemented to mitigate risk (e.g., retrieval of checked bags to CBP Secondary when requested). While the principles required to implement an international-to-domestic connections pro- cess that reduces the need for baggage recheck remain the same, the risk and corresponding mitigation measures will likely be different. The contents of an international-to-domestic pas- senger's bag are more likely to enter the commerce of the United States than are those of an international-to-international passenger. Therefore, appropriate steps must be taken to prevent prohibited goods from entering the country if baggage recheck is removed. The international connections baggage processes that eliminate baggage recheck are already in operation at DFW and a number of DFW facility features are available for use in international- to-domestic connections processes (e.g., a legacy conveyor divert system that leads to the baggage carousels area currently exists in Terminal D and may accommodate baggage X-ray machines and ramp-level connection induct points into the baggage handling system). If all operational and risk management issues can be resolved, the cost to CBP to eliminate baggage recheck for inter- national-to-domestic connections similar to that of the existing international-to-international connections would be moderate. Transportation Security Administration As referenced earlier, TSA has no change in screening processes with baggage recheck elimination or reduction. However, TSA screening operations may be affected by the timing of when passen- gers arrive at the passenger screening checkpoint and when checked bags are inspected through the baggage screening system. No significant cost savings to TSA are foreseen by eliminating baggage recheck. Case Study 2: HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport Current Processes The following describes the current processes through Concourse E at ATL for four different flows.

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Airport Case Studies 23 International Arrivals/Terminating Passengers Passengers who are terminating in Atlanta (or are staying overnight on a connection) proceed through Steps 1 through 4 shown in Figure 8. While passenger processing is similar to that of DFW through CBP Primary, baggage claim, and egress, there is a major difference in Atlanta from the usual process for terminating airports. Unlike other case study airports, all terminating passengers need to first recheck their bags because Concourse E is an airside international arriv- als building. Following baggage recheck, passengers are sent to security screening by TSA before being allowed in the secure area of the facility (i.e., the people mover system). One difference noted in baggage processing is that bags are unloaded from international arrivals and transported underground by conveyor belts to the baggage claim area for pickup by passengers. A graphical depiction of the process is shown in Figure 8. Note that for terminating pas- sengers, the process is identical to connecting passengers until Step 7 where they are required to reclaim their baggage before exiting the airport. In 2012, the Maynard H. Jackson Jr. Inter- national Terminal will have a second CBP international arrivals area for ATL which will not have a baggage recheck process for terminating passengers. International-to-Domestic Connections For connecting passengers, international-to-domestic connections represent a sizable con- nection flow. The current international-to-domestic process [e.g., Lima (LIM)ATLBoston (BOS)] at HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport follows two main flows: Passengers: Deplane (Step 1) and proceed through CBP Primary (Step 2). Descend to the baggage claim area and are reunited with their bags (Step 3). After exiting through the CBP Egress Point (Step 4), recheck their bags (Step 5). After being processed through TSA passenger screening (Step 6), either proceed upstairs to outbound gates on Concourse E or downstairs to the people mover system depending on the domestic connecting flight (Step 7). Bags Bags are unloaded from aircraft and transported up to the baggage claim carousels. After being claimed and rechecked by passengers, bags proceed through a TSA in-line bag- gage screening process in Concourse E before being forwarded to other concourses. An overview of the process is provided in Figure 9 with passenger process Steps 1 through 7, as well as the corresponding bag processes. International-to-International Connections HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport has eliminated baggage recheck for international-to-international connections. For a number of flight routings (e.g., AfricaATLSouth America), there is an increasing focus on facilitating process flows. In reviewing volumes, the study team found that ATL had one of the largest scale programs of baggage recheck elimination to date, estimated at 360,000 passengers/year. International-to- international bags are separated and kept at the ramp level, where they are introduced into TSA's EDS in Concourse E. Meanwhile, corresponding passengers deplane with other types of passen- gers (domestic connections, terminating) and are processed by CBP. If CBP refers a passenger to Secondary, then the baggage is delivered to the Secondary area. In Atlanta's case, the layout of the terminal is conducive to this arrangement given that all bags remain on the apron level. An overview of the international baggage connection program process is provided in Figure 10 with passenger process Steps 1 through 7, as well as the corresponding bag processes.

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24 Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers Figure 8. ATL international arrivals passenger and bag flow.

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Airport Case Studies 25 Figure 9. ATL international-to-domestic passenger and bag flow.

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26 Elimination or Reduction of Baggage Recheck for Arriving International Passengers Figure 10. ATL international-to-international passenger and bag flow.

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Airport Case Studies 27 Preclearance Connections ATL is the recipient of U.S. Preclearance flights from the Caribbean (e.g., Nassau) and Canada (e.g., Toronto). Precleared arriving passengers are treated similarly to those arriving on domestic flights: passengers deplane directly into the departures area and can proceed directly to their sub- sequent connecting flights. Precleared flights from the Caribbean typically arrive on Concourse E, while precleared flights from Canada arrive on Concourse D. Rescreening of bags from these flights occurs within one of three screening areas (two within the main terminal building and one under Concourse E). To meet this requirement, bags must be presented to the TSA by the carrier for rescreening before enplanement for a subsequent flight. Preferential Connections on Airline Alliances SkyTeam is the primary alliance for connections at ATL. While the baggage recheck facility is primarily geared toward the dominant carrier and alliance, there are also desks and capabilities for United Airlines and British Airways/American Airlines staff to use recheck facilities. Relevance of Eliminating Baggage Recheck Airlines Discussions with airlines highlighted several key benefits of baggage recheck elimination, including reduced staffing costs and improved connections. The challenge of the baggage process stems from the volume of bags and passengers being handled. International movements at ATL typically call for approximately 23,000 arriving bags per day. This amounts to an hourly peak of more than 1,100 bags on average, with peaks that could approach 1,500 bags depending on the number of wide body aircraft. The relevance of the baggage recheck connection issue is based on connection times and accommodating the large volumes of passengers. At present, 80 minutes is the standard for internationaldomestic connection times at ATL. However, as 12 wide body aircraft currently arrive between 3:30 and 5:00 p.m., peak baggage volumes can result in up to 20 percent of international bags missing connections. By compari- son, domestic connections are listed at 40 minutes. Atlanta's very large volume of baggage is impacted by insufficient connection time, and the baggage delay is often misperceived by pas- sengers to be the fault of CBP. With international-to-international processes in place for handling bags at the ramp level, there was anecdotal evidence that substantial improvements on the number of mishandled bags were made for this flow. Airport One of the chief customer service complaints about HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport is the baggage recheck process for terminating passengers. While the new Maynard Holbrook Jackson, Jr. International Terminal will address this recheck for terminating flows, there is considerable interest in eliminating all baggage recheck due to space constraints. Sim- plifying access to inter-concourse trains could result in dramatic gains in passenger flows and convenience. Customs and Border Protection CBP is generally supportive of a technological approach to improving the baggage recheck processes. While mindful of the risk environment, CBP noted that HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport was one of the fastest growing sites for Global Entry. The relevance to the baggage recheck issue is based on the opportunity for testing ideas for a group of vetted low-risk