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Chapter 4 Testing and Evaluating Potential Solutions To eliminate or reduce baggage recheck, CBP must specifically exempt international con- necting bags from appearing in the FIS area. To provide such an exemption, CBP must be sat- isfied that it is able to effectively manage all people and goods that seek entry to the United States. Given the pilot projects in place at four U.S. airports to reduce baggage recheck for select international-to-international connections, CBP is open to discussing opportunities to provide a facilitated process for passengers. Trends in Border Risk Management Relevant to This Study The study team found three opportunities for risk management that are relevant to baggage recheck elimination: Activities before a flight takes off from a foreign airport Processes immediately upon arrival at a U.S. airport Other measures undertaken prior to the next flight Overall, border authorities worldwide are increasing the amount of risk management before flight departures and augmenting the arrivals processes. This effort is intended to "push out the border" in order to identify (and mitigate) potential threats as early as possible. Activities Before a Flight Takes Off from a Foreign Airport In the past, CBP and other border agencies around the world relied almost exclusively on processes upon arrival. Since 1997, CBP has dramatically increased the use of advanced risk management tools before a flight takes off from a foreign airport. These tools include a range of initiatives, from the use of API/PNR data to the recent introduction of Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA), Secure Flight, and other board/no-board programs. More infor- mation on these programs can be found in Appendix D. For the most part, the programs have facilitated handling immigration risks for CBP. The U.S. Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) program, for example, has assisted in minimizing visa fraud through the use of biometrics. There are, however, few activities that actually take place before an international arrival that deal directly with customs or agricultural risks. Two examples are preclearance and an Australia/ New Zealand initiative to share X-ray images for the purpose of agricultural inspection. There are several potential opportunities for managing risks before arrivals. 37